An analysis of indices and ratios in anthropometric body measurements among team sports athletes


  • Md. Hamidur Rahman Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
  • J. P. Sharma Indira Gandhi Institute of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India



Anthropometric status, Body index, Health metric, Measurement ratio, Team sports


Background: Physical indices and proportions based on anthropometry are crucial for determining the performance of players in team sports. The study aims to analyze the anthropometric status, body mass and shape indices, including waist-to-hip and height ratios, among athletes from different team sports.

Methods: Study involved 135 male team-sport athletes specializing in basketball, handball, and volleyball, with 45 players in each sport. Researchers collected anthropometric data, including chronological age (CA), height (Ht), weight (Wt), body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC) and hip circumferences (HC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and a body shape index (ABSI). To compare variables across groups, descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA with LSD post-hoc tests used. Relationships within each group were examined using correlation analysis.

Results: The ANOVA findings indicated F-values (2, 132) for CA at 0.57, p=0.57, BMI at 0.59, p=0.56, WC at 2.10, p=0.13, WHR at 1.37, p=0.27, and ABSI at 1.41, p=0.25, respectively, revealing no significant disparities among the groups. Conversely, Ht at 13.36, p=0.00, Wt at 5.74, p=0.00, HC at 6.33, p=0.00, and WHtR at 3.60, p=0.03, respectively, highlighted significant variations between the groups. Furthermore, the correlation of BMI, WC, HC, WHR, WHtR, and ABSI in each group showed a strong positive correlation (p<0.01).

Conclusions: Athletes in team sports were found to have similar body mass and shape indices, including ratios for WHR, while the WHtR ratio showed significant variations among the groups. Despite these differences, measures of athletes’ health metrics across these sports remain within safe, normal ranges.


Metrics Loading ...


Toselli S. Body composition and physical health in sports practice: An editorial. Int J Environmental Res Public Heal. 2021;18(9):1-4.

Stewart AD. The concept of body composition and its applications. In Stewart A, Sutton L, editors. Body Composition in Sport, Exercise and Health. Routledge. 2012;1-19.

Rodriguez NR, Di Marco NM, Langley S. American college of sports medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 2009;41(3):709-31.

National Strength and Conditioning Association. Sport performance and body composition. Available at: Accessed on 1 January, 2024.

Malina RM. Body composition in athletes: assessment and estimated fatness. Clin Sports Med. 2007;26(1):37-68.

Radu LE, Hazar F, Puni AR. Anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sci. 2014;149:798-802.

World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organization technical report series. Geneva. 2000;894:i-253

Ahsan M, Ali MF. Body mass index: A determinant of distress, depression, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life amongst recreational athletes from random intermittent dynamic type sports. Heliyon. 2023;9(4):e15563.

Haufs MG, Zöllner YF. Waist-Hip Ratio More Appropriate Than Body Mass Index. DeutschesArzteblatt Int. 2020;117(39):659-60.

Ashwell M, Gunn P, Gibson S. Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Rev. 2012;13(3):275-86.

Lee JS, Aoki K, Kawakubo K, Gunji A. A study on indices of body fat distribution for screening for obesity. J Occupational Heal. 1995;37(1):9-18.

Hsieh SD, Yoshinaga H. Abdominal fat distribution and coronary heart disease risk factors in men-waist/height ratio as a simple and useful predictor. Int J Obesity Related Metab Disord. 1995;19(8):585-9

Ashwell M, Lejeune S, McPherson K. Ratio of waist circumference to height may be better indicator of need for weight management. BMJ Clin Res. 1996;312(7027):377.

Zhou W, Zhu L, Yu Y, Yu C, Bao H, Cheng X. A Body Shape Index is positively associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in the Chinese population with normal weight: A prospective cohort study. Nutrit Metabol Cardiovascular Dis. 2023;33(9):1702-8.

Krakauer NY, Krakauer JC. A new body shape index predicts mortality hazard independently of body mass index. PloS One. 2012;7(7):e39504.

Kajikawa M, Maruhashi T, Kishimoto S, Yamaji T, Harada T, Hashimoto Y, et al. A body shape index is associated with endothelial dysfunction in both men and women. Scient Rep. 2021;11(1):17873.

Krakauer JC, Krakauer NY. Combining Body Mass and Shape Indices in Clinical Practice. Case Rep Med. 2016;2016:1526175.

World Health Organization. Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors: Country-level data and comparable estimates. The SuRF Report 2, WHO Global InfoBase team. 2005. Available at: Accessed on 3 January 2024.

World Health Organization. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: Report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 8-11 December 2008. Available at: item/9789241501491. Accessed on 3 January 2024.

NICE. Obesity: identification, assessment, and management. Clinical Guideline [CG189]. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. London. 2024. Available at: cg189. Accessed on 1 January, 2024.

Rahman MH, Sharma JP. An assessment of maximal isometric hand grip strength and upper body explosive strength and endurance in various ball sports. Physical Education Theory Methodol. 2023;23(6):932-9.

Reza MN, Rahman MH, Islam MS, Gayen A. An examination of audio-visual simple reaction times in selected court games. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2023;17(1):9-14.

Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. American college of sports medicine joint position statement. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 2016;48(3):543-68.

González-Neira M, San Mauro-Martín I, García-Angulo B, Fajardo D, Garicano-Vilar E. Nutritional and body composition assessment and its relationship with athletic performance in a women’s soccer team. Spanish J Human Nutrit Dietetics. 2014;19(1):36-48.

Parrish R. The Ideal Weight for a Soccer Player. SportsRec. Available at: 5464445/the-ideal-weight-for-a-soccer-player. Accessed on 1 January, 2024.

Islam MS. Relationship of abdominal muscle endurance with selected anthropometric measurements in soccer players. Int J Physiol Nutrit Physical Educat. 2018;3(2):1088-90.

Belli T, Meireles CL de S, Costa MO, Ackermann MA, Gobatto CA. Somatotype, body composition and performance in ultramarathon. Revista Brasileira De Cineantropometria Desempenho Humano. 2016;18(2):127-35.

Duren DL, Sherwood RJ, Czerwinski SA, Lee M, Choh AC, Siervogel RM, et al. Body composition methods: Comparisons and interpretation. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008;2(6):1139-46.

Aurelio J, Dias E, Soares T, Jorge G, Cunha Espanda MA. Relationship between body composition anthropometry and physical fitness in under-12 soccer players of different positions. Int J Sports Sci. 2016;6(1):25-30.

Fields JB, Merrigan JJ, White JB, Jones MT. Body composition variables by sport and sport-position in elite collegiate athletes. J Strength Conditioning Res. 2018;32(11):3153-9.

Ackland TR, Lohman TG, Sundgot-Borgen J, Maughan RJ, Meyer NL, Stewart AD, et al. Current status of body composition assessment in sport. Sports Med. 2012;42(3):227-49.

Wan Nudri WD, Wan Abdul Manan WM, Mohamed Rusli A. Body mass index and body fat status of men involved in sports, exercise, and sedentary activities. Malaysian J Med Sci. 2009;16(2):21-6.

Sedeaud A, Marc A, Marck A, Dor F, Schipman J, Dorsey M, et al. BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement. PloS One. 2014;9(2):e90183.

Hillman J. How BMI impacts sports and how much you should depend on it. Running Shoes Reviews and Buying Guide. Running Shoes Guru. 2019. Available at: Accessed on 1 January, 2024.

Masanovic B, Milosevic Z, Corluka M. Comparative study of anthropometric measurement and body composition between junior handball and volleyball players from Serbian national league. Int J Appli Exercise Physiol. 2018;7(4):1-7.

Ode JJ, Pivarnik JM, Reeves MJ, Knous JL. Body mass index as a predictor of percent fat in college athletes and nonathletes. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 2007;39(3):403-9.

Milanese C, Piscitelli F, Lampis C, Zancanaro C. Anthropometry and body composition of female handball players according to competitive level or the playing position. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(12):1301-9.

Gryko K, Stastny P, Kopiczko A, Mikołajec K, Pecha O, Perkowski K. Can anthropometric variables and maturation predict the playing position in youth basketball players? J Human Kinetics. 2019;69:109-23.

Bakinde TS. Correlates of body composition and motor performance variables of university of Ilorin male handball players. Int J Res Education. 2021;1(2):75-85.

Yoo EG. Waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Kor J Pediatr. 2016;59(11):425-31.






Original Research Articles