Microbiological evaluation of cosmetics products sourced in Aba city, Nigeria


  • Peace N. Ibegbulam-Njoku Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia state, Nigeria
  • Chinenye C. Chijioke-Osuji Department of Theoritical and Applied Biology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana




Cosmetcs, Preservative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albican


Background: Cosmetics are external preparations normally applied to human body parts mainly for beautifying, cleansing and protecting. These products are basically non-sterile but must be completely free of high-virulence microbial pathogens. Production of stable cosmetics products require integrated quality management system which consists of quality raw material, proper product formulation, hygienic design of production facilities, good production hygiene process, packaging containers and a validated preservative system. Inadequately preserved products can provide conducive environments for microorganisms especially in the tropical region. The objective of this study is to assess the microbial quality of some selected brands of cosmetics produced in the country and sold within the commercial city of Aba, Abia state of Nigeria thus to note the health hazards consumers are exposed to.

Methods: Twenty brands of commercially available Cosmetic products manufactured in Nigeria were evaluated for their microbial quality using standard procedures.

Results: There was no viable bacterial growth in 40% of the samples tested and no yeast growth in 65% of the samples tested. 35% of the products indicated < 300 CFU /g of samples tested. The predominant bacterial isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococci aureus. Preservative efficacy tests carried out on the products using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 showed only 30% of the products tested were adequately preserved.

Conclusions: The poor microbiological quality of the preparations investigated can be attributed to either the formulation of these brands or environmental conditions during the manufacturing process. It is hoped that the training of the personnel that handle these processes will improve cosmetic products quality in Nigeria.


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