DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20174089

Knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking among university students in Muzaffarabad, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

Zahid Latif, Junaid Jamshed, Muhammad Mushtaq Khan

Abstract


Background: Smoking is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Smoking killed more than 6 million people, about 80% in the developing countries such as Pakistan in 2011. Now it has become major public health issue in the world.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 542 students at University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir in Muzaffarabad, Pakistan from July to December 2015. The data were collected using a pre-tested, self-administered, validated questionnaire requiring information about socio-demographic characteristics, practice and patterns of cigarette smoking, knowledge about its harmful effects and attitude towards smoking control and prevention measures.  

Results: The prevalence of cigarette smoking among students was 49.5%. The mean age for starting cigarette smoking was 19.2±2.73 years. Cigarette smoking constituted 61.3% and shisha constituted 18.4%. The main reason for cigarette smoking was peer pressure (35.0%) followed by family influencing (24.5%). About 79.5% of the smokers had intension to quit smoking. There was no significant difference (p value=0.484) between prevalence of cigarette smoking in different faculties of University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The majority of the students (84.3%) knew that smoking is harmful for their health. However, rates of non-smoking students who knew the adverse effects of smoking were significantly higher than that of students who smoke. A high rate of students showed positive attitude towards smoking prevention and control measures.

Conclusions: High prevalence of cigarette smoking was reported among students. There is a need to implement an anti-smoking program among students at University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

Keywords


Cigarette smoking, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, University students, Muzaffarabad

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bhatti MUD, Choksi HM, Bashir NS. Tobacco Knowledge, Attitudes and Trends amongst Staff and Students of University College of Dentistry Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Oral Dental J. 2010;30(2):468-72.

Askarian M, Kouchak F, Youssef M, Romito LM. Comparing Tobacco Use Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices between Engineering Students at a Public and Islamic Azad University in Shiraz, Iran 2011. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(10):1154-61.

Abou-Faddan HH, Ahmed SM. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study on Smoking among Male Students in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi University, Gharian–Libya. J Am Sci. 2012;8(11):485-91.

Bushra R, Aslam N, Khan U, Bano N, Jamal A, Sial AA, et al. Prevalence of Smoking in Teenagers Male Undergraduate Students a Study of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pakistan Med Assoc. 2013;3(2):49-54.

Khan J. Tobacco Epidemic in Pakistan. J Postgrad Med Inst. 2012;26(3):233-6.

Ahmed R, Rashid RU, McDonald PW, Ahmed SW. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among young adults in Pakistan. J Pakistan Med Assoc. 2008;58(11):597-601.

Awan S, Sathiakumar N, Delzell E. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Adult Males in Rural Sindh, Pakistan. Southeast Asian Trop J Med Public Health. 2006;37(5):1054-60.

Ali IS, Yaqoob N, Fatima G, Iftekhar H, Abbas M. Pattern of Smoking in Medical Students. J Rawalpindi Med Coll. 2013;17(1):140-3.

Karamat A, Arif N, Malik AK, Chaudhry A, Cheema MA, Rauf A. Cigarette smoking and medical students at King Edward Medical University, Lahore (Pakistan). J Pak Med Assoc. 2012;61(5):509-12.

Mathew DP, Indiradevi ER, Srijith R, Mathew T, Varghese V, Vijavan V. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Tobacco Smoking, Among College Students of South India. Int J Healthcare Sci. 2015;2(2):354-7.

Gholamreza HMY, Fard, Hosseini M, Khani AR, Masjedi MR. Cigarette Smoking, Knowledge, Attitude and Prediction of Smoking Between Male Students, Teachers and Clergymen in Tehran, Iran, 2009. Int J Prevent Med. 2013;4(5):557-64.

Hossain S, Hossain S, Ahmed F, Islam R, Sikder T, Rahman A. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Factors Associated with the Initiation of Smoking among University Students in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Central Asian J Global Health. 2017;6(1):244.

Xu X, Leung DYP, Li B, Wang P, Zhao Y. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China. Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:895-909.

Ah DV, Ebert S, Ngamvitroj A, Park N, Kang D. Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking Initiation and Use among College Students. Tobacco Induced Diseases. 2005;3(1):27-40.

Steptoe A, Wardle J. Health behaviour, risk awareness and emotional well-being in students from Eastern Europe and Western Europe. Social Sci Med. 2001;53:1621-30.

Al-Qahtani JM. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tobacco Smoking among Health Colleges’ Students at Najran University, Saudi Arabia: A Cross‑sectional Descriptive Study. J Health Specialties. 2017;5(1):35-41.

Al-Naggar RA, Al-Dubai SAR, Al-Naggar TH, Chen R, Al-Jashamy K. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking among Malaysian University Students. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevent. 2012;12:619-24.

Tumer UE, Yurtseven E, Donuk B. Prevalence of Smoking and Related Risk Factors among Physical Education and Sports School Students at Istanbul University. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9:674-84.

Ehsan TA, Ghorbani A, Salehi M, Sadeghnia HR. Cigarette Smoking Behavior and the Related Factors among the Students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014;17(1):1-6.

Hussain A, Khan MW, Zaidi N, Hussain S, Waqas. Attitudes And Beliefs of Non-Medical Students towards Tobacco Use and Smoking. Pak J Heart. 2014;47(1):23-7.

Murad A, Haleem A. Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour of Medical and Dental Students towards Smoking Habit in Saudi Arabian Universities: A Comparative Study. Int Dental J Student’s Res. 2012;1(1):16.

Devi MB, Sreegiri S, Gopi S, Koyyana S. Perceptions of Young Male Smokers in Visakhapatnam about Tobacco Use and Control Measures. Int J Res Development Health. 2013;1(3):129-35.

Sharif L, Qandil A, Alkafajei A. Knowledge, attitude and practice of university students towards smoking in Irbid, Jordan. J Public Health Epidemiol. 2013;5(1):29-36.

Heydari G, Youseffard M, Hosseini M, Ramezankhani A, Masjedi, MR. Cigarette Smoking, Knowledge, Attitude and Prediction of Smoking Between Male Students, Teachers and Clergymen in Tehran, Iran, 2009. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(5):557-64.

Shomar RTA, Lubbad IK, Ansari WE, Al-Khatib IA, Alharazin HJ. Smoking, Awareness of Smoking-Associated Health Risks, and Knowledge of National Tobacco Legislation in Gaza, Palestine. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2014;22(2):80-9.