Evaluation of lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia or analgesia with lidocaine-acepromazine combination in dogs undergoing cystotomy
Keywords:Lumbo sacral, Epidural anaesthesia, Dogs, Lignocaine, Acepromazine
Background: Epidural anaesthesia is one of the most frequently used regional anesthetic techniques recommended for surgical procedures caudal to the umbilicus in dogs. However, the use of lignocaine alone for epidural regional analgesia has been discovered to have shorter duration of analgesia and prolong onset of action, hence there is need to explore combinations of agents that will overcome this challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the anaesthetic/analgesic effect of cranial epidural anaesthesia in dogs undergoing cystotomy using Lignocaine in combination with acepromazine at the dose rates of 7 mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg respectively.
Methods: Eight apparently healthy matured, male and female dogs were used for the experiment. The onset and duration of analgesia was determined. The pulse rates, respiratory rates, mean arterial blood pressure, rectal temperature, complete blood count and the oxygen saturation level were determined at baseline, intra operative and post-operative.
Results: There were no significant differences in all the parameters measured before and after the epidural administration of the agents. The onset of anaesthesia was rapid and the duration of anaesthesia was sufficient enough for the procedure to be carried out. However, there was significant difference in PCV, Hb and total RBC count between the baseline and other timing intervals. There were no significant differences in leucocytic and cardiopulmonary parameters between the baseline and other timing intervals.
Conclusions: The epidural administration of lignocaine and acepromazine combination at the doses indicated can produced sufficient epidural anaesthesia with rapid onset for the purpose of cystotomy in dogs without major systemic influence on hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary changes.
Skarda RT, Tranquilli WJ. Local and regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques: dogs. In: Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JC, Grimm KA, (eds) Lumb and Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, 4th edn. Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell; 2007: 561-594.
Torske KE, Dyson DH. Epidural Analgesia and Anesthesia. Veterinary Clinics North Am: Small Animal Pract. 2000;30(4):859-74.
Olaifa AK, Oluranti OI. The Use of Epidural Anaesthesia over General Anaesthesia in Ruminants. Concept Dairy Veterinary Sci. 2018;1(3):68-71.
Livingston A, Waterman AE, Chambers JP. Neurologic evaluation of effective post-operative pain therapy. In: Proceedings of the Chapter of Anaesthetics and Critical Care of the Australian College of Veterinary Scientists. 1994;226:189-202.
Campoy L. Epidural and Spinal Anaesthesia in the Dog. In Practice. 2004;26:262-9.
Hall WL, Clarke K. Veterinary Anaesthesia (11th edition), Elsevier publisher; 2014.
Jones RS. Epidural analgesia in the dog and cat. Veterinary J. 2001;161:123-31.
Steagal PVM, Simon BT, Neto FJT, Luna SPL. An Update on Drugs Used for Lumbosacral Epidural Anesthesia and Analgesia in Dogs. Frontiers Veterinary Sci. 2017;4(68):1-12.
Pereira GF. Epidural anesthesia and analgesia in small animal practice: an update. Veterinary J. 2018;242:24-32.
Flores MM. Clinical pharmacology and toxicology of local anesthetics and adjuncts. In. Small Animal Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia, first edition, (part 1 - chapter 4). John Wiley and sons, Inc.; 2013: 25-40.
Wagner AE, Hellyer PW. Survey of anaesthesia techniques and concerns in Private Veterinary Practice. J Am Veterinary Med Association. 2000;217(11):1652-7.
Adetunji A, Ajadi R, Adewoye CO. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol: repeat bolus versus continuous propofol infusion technique in Xylazine pre-medicated dogs. Israel J Veterinary Med. 2002;57(4):139-44.
Abubakar AA, Gabriel D, Sadiq YA, Mobolaji LF, Onoruoyiza MM. Lumbosacral epidural analgesia with ketamine alone or in combination with xylazine in dogs. Int J Vet Sci. 2015;4(3):111-7.
Tacke S. Epidural anaesthesia: a bright new star of small animal anesthesia? Procedings of the North American Veterinay Community (NAVC) Conference; 2011:172-174.
Fossum TW, Duprey LT, Huff TG. Surgery of Kidney and Urethra. In: Small Animal Soft Tissue Surgery (Fossum, T.W. 4th edition). Elsevier Publishers; 2013:705-734.
Dzikiti TB, Ndawana PS, Bester ZG, Dzikiti LLN. Determination of the minimum infusion rate of alfaxalone during its co-administration with midazolam in goats. Vet Record Open. 2015;2:000065.
Gebremedhin Y, Negash G, Fantay H. Clinical Evaluation of Anesthetic Combinations of Xylazine-Ketamine, Diazepam-Ketamine and Acepromazine-Ketamine in Dogs of Local Breed in Mekelle, Ethiopia. SOJ Vet Sci. 2018;4(2):1-9.
Singh K, Kinjavdekar P, Amarpal HP, Aithal A, Gopinathan, Singh GR, et al. Effects of epidural ketamine-xylazine combination on the clinic-physiological and haemato-biochemical parameters of uraemic and healthy goats. Vet Res Comm. 2007;31:133-42.
Hassan AZ, Hassan FB. An Introduction to Veterinary practice; 1st edition, Ahmadu Bello University Press, Zaria. 2003:64.
Covino BG. Pharmacology of local anaesthetic agents. Br J Anaesthesia. 1986;58(7):701-6.
Lemke, Kip A. Anticholinergics and sedatives. In: Lumb and Jones' Veterinary Anesthesia and analgesia. 4th edition (Section III - Chapter 9). Blackwell publishing; 2007:P3-208.
White K, Shelton K, Taylor P. Comparisons of diazepam-ketamine and thiopentone for induction of anaesthesia in healthy dogs. J Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2001;28(1):42-8.
Sindak N, Camekerten I, Ceylan C. Clinical evaluation of xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in bozova greyhounds. J Animal Vet Adv. 2010;9(15):2025-9.
Amarpal P, Kinjavdekar P, Aithal A, Pawde K, Singh J, Rahul U. Evaluation Xylazine, Acepromazine and Medetomidine and Ketamine for general anesthesia in rabbits. Scandinavian J Laboratory Animal Sci. 2017;37(3):223-9.
Lawan AA, Falade A, Adetunji FB. Comparative evaluation of lignocaine and lignocaine-bupivacaine for lumbo-sacral epidural block in diazepam sedated West African dwarf goats Sokoto. J Vet Sci. 2019;17(2):27-32.
Vesal N, Sarchahi AA, Nikahval B, Karampour A. Clinical evaluation of the sedative properties of acepromazin-exylazine combinations with or without atropine and their effects on physiologic values in dogs. Veterinarski Arhiv. 2011;81(4):485-98.
Nishimura T, Villela IOJ, Carvalho LL, Borges LPB, Silva MAM, Junior ME. The Effect of Acepromazine Alone or in Combination with Methadone, Morphine, or Tramadol on Sedation and Selected Cardiopulmonary Variables in Sheep Lilian. Vet Med Int. 2017:1-6.
Wagner A, Muir W, Hinchclif KW. Cardiovascular effects of xylazine and detomidine in horse. American J Vet Res. 1991;52(5):651-7.
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi NJ, Mulei CM. The hematological and cardiopulmonary effects of epidural xylazine, lidocaine and their combination in acepromazine sedated dogs. Inter J Vet Sci. 2014;3(2):46-51.
Fani FA, Mehesare SP, Pawshe DB, Khan KM, Jadhav ND. Haematological and Biochemical changes during Epidural Xylazine hydrochloride anaesthesia in Dogs. Vet World. 2008;1(6):175-7.
Jean G, Skarda RT, Muir WW, Hoffsis GF. Caudal epidural analgesia induced by xylazine administration in cows. Amer J Vet Res. 1990;51:1232-6.
Skarda RT, Muir WW. Analgesic, hemodynamic and respiratory effects of caudal epidurally administered xylazine hydrochloride solution in mares. Amer J Vet Res. 1996;57:193-200.
Singh P, Pratap K, Amarpal HP, Kinjavdekar P, Aithal HP, Singh GR, et al. Xylazine, ketamine and their combination for lumbar epidural analgesia in water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). J Vet Med A. 2006;53:423-31.
Umar MA, Wakil Y. Efects of the combination of ketamine and medetomidine anaesthesia on haematological parameters in sahel goats. Sok J Vet Sci. 2013;11:66-9.
Ismail ZB, Khaleel, Majali AA. Effect of xylazine-ketamine-diazepam anaesthesia on blood cell counts and plasma biochemical values in sheep and goats. Comp Clin Pathol. 2010;19(1):11-4.
Kilic N. Cardiopulmonary, biochemical and haematological changes after detomidine-midazolam-ketamine anaesthesia in calves. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2008;52:453-6.