Evaluation of lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia or analgesia with lidocaine-acepromazine combination in dogs undergoing cystotomy


  • Abubakar S. Yakubu Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
  • Abidoye O. Ebenezer Department of Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
  • Aisha A. Abdulkareem Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
  • David A. Adedokun Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
  • Adamu A. Abubakar Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
  • Ekaete I. Oviawe Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
  • Nura Abubakar Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
  • Hassan A. Bodinga Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto




Lumbo sacral, Epidural anaesthesia, Dogs, Lignocaine, Acepromazine


Background: Epidural anaesthesia is one of the most frequently used regional anesthetic techniques recommended for surgical procedures caudal to the umbilicus in dogs. However, the use of lignocaine alone for epidural regional analgesia has been discovered to have shorter duration of analgesia and prolong onset of action, hence there is need to explore combinations of agents that will overcome this challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the anaesthetic/analgesic effect of cranial epidural anaesthesia in dogs undergoing cystotomy using Lignocaine in combination with acepromazine at the dose rates of 7 mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg respectively.

Methods: Eight apparently healthy matured, male and female dogs were used for the experiment. The onset and duration of analgesia was determined. The pulse rates, respiratory rates, mean arterial blood pressure, rectal temperature, complete blood count and the oxygen saturation level were determined at baseline, intra operative and post-operative.  

Results: There were no significant differences in all the parameters measured before and after the epidural administration of the agents. The onset of anaesthesia was rapid and the duration of anaesthesia was sufficient enough for the procedure to be carried out. However, there was significant difference in PCV, Hb and total RBC count between the baseline and other timing intervals. There were no significant differences in leucocytic and cardiopulmonary parameters between the baseline and other timing intervals.

Conclusions: The epidural administration of lignocaine and acepromazine combination at the doses indicated can produced sufficient epidural anaesthesia with rapid onset for the purpose of cystotomy in dogs without major systemic influence on hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary changes.


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Author Biographies

Abubakar S. Yakubu, Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto

Senior Lecturer

Adamu A. Abubakar, Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

Senior Lecturer


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