International Journal of Scientific Reports <p>International Journal of Scientific Reports is an open access, international, peer-reviewed multidisciplinary science and technology journal. The journal's full text is available online at International Journal of Scientific Reports is dedicated to publishing research from all areas of science and technology. The journal has a broad coverage of Medical sciences, Dental sciences, Physiotherapy, Biological sciences, Pharmaceutical sciences, Earth and environmental sciences, Physical sciences. International Journal of Scientific Reports is one of the fastest communication journals and articles are published online within short time after acceptance of manuscripts. The types of articles accepted include original research articles, review articles, editorial, news, case reports, short communications, correspondence, images, problem solving, perspectives and new updates. It is published monthly and available in print and online version.</p> <p><em><strong>Aims and scope</strong></em></p> <p><strong>Biological sciences</strong></p> <p>Cancer, Structural biology, Biophysics, Zoology, Systems biology, Evolution, Biological techniques, Stem cells, Neuroscience, Genetics, Microbiology, Biotechnology, Computational biology and bioinformatics, Physiology, Biochemistry, Psychology, Ecology, Developmental biology, Drug discovery, Plant sciences, Chemical biology, Molecular biology, Immunology, Cell biology</p> <p><strong>Health sciences</strong></p> <p>Pathogenesis, Risk factors, Biomarkers, Diseases, Signs and symptoms, Anatomy, Medical research, Health care, Health occupations, Dental sciences, Physiotherapy, Pharmaceutical sciences</p> <p><strong>Earth and environmental sciences</strong></p> <p>Planetary science, Environmental sciences, Environmental social sciences, Ecology, Climate sciences, Solid Earth sciences</p> <p><strong>Physical sciences</strong></p> <p>Optics and photonics, Astronomy and planetary science, Nanoscience and technology, Mathematics and computing, Materials science, Chemistry, Engineering, Physics</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2454-2156</p> <p><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2454-2164</p> <p><strong>Issues: 12 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix: 10.18203</strong></p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), which operates <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef (DOI)</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Manuscript Submission</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Scientific Reports accepts manuscript submissions through <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a>:</p> <p>About the Journal &gt; <a title="Online Submissions" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a></p> <p>Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.</p> <p>Please check out the video on our YouTube Channel:</p> <p>Steps to register and submit a manuscript:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Problem Logging In-Clear cookies:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>If you find any difficulty in online submission of your manuscript, please contact editor at <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Abbreviation</strong></p> <p>The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Int J Sci Rep.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing information</strong></p> <p>The journal is indexed with</p> <p><strong><a href=";journalId=43334" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a></strong>, </p> <p><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region (WHO)</a></strong>,</p> <p><strong><a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit (MDPI)</a></strong>,</p> <p><strong><a title=";referer=brief_results" href=";referer=brief_results" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OCLC (WorldCat)</a></strong>,</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a>,</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Index</a>,</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>,</p> <p><a title="LOCKSS" href="http://localhost/index.php/scirep/gateway/lockss" target="_blank" rel="noopener">LOCKSS</a>, </p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">J-Gate</a>,</p> <p><a href=";format=full&amp;fIDnum=%7c" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/RoMEO</a>,</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICMJE</a>, </p> <p><a href=";subAction=pub&amp;publisherID=3072&amp;journalID=35437&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=25467&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=1&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, </p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>.</p> en-US (Editor) (Editor) Thu, 23 Nov 2023 17:54:50 +0530 OJS 60 Awareness and willingness to use oral HIV self-test and associated factor among Wollo University Health Science student in North East Ethiopia, 2023 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Use of oral HIV self-test is integral part of quality improvement of HIV prevention, care and treatment. There is no evidence related to awareness and willingness to use oral HIV self-test. The aim of the study was to assess awareness and willingness to use oral HIV self-test and associated factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Cross-sectional study was conducted among Wollo University student. The data collection instrument was self-administered questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the participant’s proportional to sample size. The final sample size was 373 medical students. SPSS version 26 was used to analyze data and the results were presented by using tables, Pie charts, and histograms. The study was analyzed using binary logistic regression and p value less than 0.25 was entered in Multi-variable logistic regression. Finally, p value less than 0.05 in multi-variable logistic regression was considered as statically significant. Odd ratio measured magnitude of association at 95% confidence interval. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 370 health science student were participated, at response rate of 98%. Prevalence of awareness and willingness among health science student toward use oral HIV self-test were 53 (14.32%) and 253 (68.38), respectively. Factors such as participating in HIV program (AOR=3.27; CI: 1.30-8.21) and who had recent HIV risk (AOR=3.16; CI; 1.40-7.12) were more likely to had awareness toward oral HIV self-test. Male student (AOR=1.74; CI; 1.02-2.82), who had recent HIV risk (AOR=3.36; CI: 1.40-8.08), recently tested for HIV (AOR=2.84; CI: 1.17-6.89) and who had STI (AOR=9.02; CI: 2.82-32.12) were more likely to be willingness to use oral HIV self-test in the future.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study showed that willingness to use HIV self-test in future was high. But awareness of HIV self-test is low. It is crucial to prioritize willingness and awareness activities particularly among sex of respondent, recent HIV risk, tested for HIV and STI client.</p> Mulu Kassa Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of latex agglutination test and E-test for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study was undertaken to compare the phenotypic methods of latex agglutination test and e-test with polymerase chain reaction for the detection of methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Two hundred pus samples obtained from different clinical disciplines were subjected to the latex agglutination test and minimum inhibitory concentration by e-test (Oxacillin and Vancomycin) as per the standard guidelines. The comparison was made with polymerase chain reaction as the reference test. The diagnostic accuracy of each method was reported in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The sensitivity of latex agglutination test was found to be 100% whereas e-test for Oxacillin was found to be 96.67% sensitive. Higher specificity for e-test was reported (99.41%) when compared to the latex agglutination test (97.65%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Latex agglutination and e-tests are tests are relatively simpler, rapid, and easy-to-perform methods when compared to polymerase chain reaction. The present study reported high sensitivity and specificity values for both the tests, and therefore supports usage of the stated methods as screening tools for methicillin-resistant <em>S. aureus.</em> However, more multi-centric studies are recommended to precisely determine the diagnostic accuracy of these phenotypic methods.</p> Nupur Gupta, Manoj Jais, Aditi Sharma, Priyanshu K. Shrivastava Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Cranium bifidum with meningocele in ruminants: a clinical insight <p>Cranium bifidum is an incomplete closure of the skull at the suture lines, leaving a space through which the intracranial tissues can protrude. Meningocele is the herniation of the meninges containing cerebrospinal fluid through the cranium bifidum. This congenital defect is attributed to the intake of certain poisonous plants, genetic abnormalities, hereditary factors, malnutrition, bovine viral diarrhea, and others. The obvious clinical sign is a floating saccular protrusion of varied size and volume and is typically associated with cranium bifidum in the frontal or parietal region. Surgical management involves exposing the effective cranial opening and suturing the dura mater in a simple continuous pattern. Prognosis depends on the presence or absence of neurological signs; neurological signs are associated with morphological changes in brain tissue with poor prognosis.</p> Abdulrauf Abdulrasheed, Ibrahim A. Suka, Yahaya B. Lawali, Mukaddas M. Ahmad, Nafiu Abdullahi, Hassan Tukur Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Misuse of Ozempic as a drug choice for weight loss, a potential threat <p>The 387 million people around the globe are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previously used agents to treat T2DM posed adverse risks of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Recently, Novo Nordisk, a pharmaceutical company, launched a new drug, Ozempic (Semaglutide), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on December 5, 2017. The numerous benefits of Ozempic makes it ideal for treatment of T2DM. Unfortunately, there is now an alarming shortage of Ozempic due to its misuse for weight loss.</p> Uzma Aslam, Sarah Mehboob Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Theruptor Novo dressing for an infected diabetic foot ulcer: a case study <p>In diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with peripheral neuropathy, the diabetic foot infection (DFI) often begins with a small wound that patients may not easily detect and then progresses to a more complex wound. Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is estimated to occur in approximately in 25% of individuals with diabetes in India. The bacterial infection is one of the important cause for the chronicity of DFU and are accountable for the high medical costs as well as affecting patients’ quality of life significantly<strong>. </strong>Preventing DFU secondary infections is an important function of wound dressing. There are many wound dressings available for DFU, and choosing the right dressing is one of the important parameter in the management and ultimately preventing the limb amputation. In this case, the patient presented with non-healing infected DFU and we used Theruptor Novo dressings for the wound management. The Theruptor Novo dressing was efficient in exudate management and preventing secondary infection which helped in accelerated DFU healing.</p> B. Pavan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 09 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Port site tuberculosis and retained gall stone after laparoscopic cholecystectomy <p>Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common general surgical procedures performed. Port site infection is common surgical site infection. However, tuberculosis of port sites is very uncommon. We report a case of a 36-year-old lady who was presented to our center with complaint of swelling at midclavicular port and seropurulent discharge from epigastrium port site for one month after laparoscopic cholecystectomy done outside. Patient underwent wide local excision with stone retrieval and histopathology of specimen was suggestive of chronic inflammation. Following excision patient again develop swelling at scar site and FNAC from swelling reveal feature of tuberculosis, subsequently patient was started on anti-tubercular drug therapy and follow-up after 2 months show healthy suture line with no sinus or discharge or swelling. Port site tuberculosis in absence of tuberculosis of gall bladder and abdominal is most likely due to contamination of instrument or dressing by mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagnosis is made by ZN staining or FNAC or biopsy. Management includes incision and drainage or debridement or wide local excision with anti-tuberculosis medication. Following standardized sterilization procedure is essential for prevention.</p> Vivek Kumar, Azaz Akhtar Siddiqui, Khriethonuo Kesiezie, Mahak Goel, Arun Kumar, Jenna B. Bhattacharya, Fathima O. V. Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530 The enactment of the maternity and paternity bill 2019 of Pakistan <p>“Parental leave” or “family leave” refers to a sanctioned duration off from work that is granted to both parents, irrespective of gender, to nurture a recently arrived offspring. This comprehensive terminology encompasses maternity, paternity, and adoption leave. &nbsp;Maternity leave is an expression of honour for the awe-inspiring physical and emotional journey experienced by mothers, simultaneously intertwining with paternity and adoption leave, which shines a spotlight on indispensable contribution of fathers. In 1919, the international labor organization (ILO) was established for the sake of providing women workers their necessary maternity leave rights. As stated in convention no. 183, maternity leave should be of at least 14 weeks or above, whereas recommendation no. 191 highlighted that leave should be of at least 18 weeks. The maternity leave can be further classified into: (a) compulsory maternity leave (CML), encompassing two weeks after birth; (b) Ordinary maternity leave (OML), spanning the initial 26 weeks of maternity leave; (c) additional maternity leave (AML) accommodating the succeeding 26 weeks of leave.</p> Barka Sajid, Rabeya Farid, Muzainah Tabassum Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0530