International Journal of Scientific Reports <p>International Journal of Scientific Reports is an open access, international, peer-reviewed multidisciplinary science and technology journal. The journal's full text is available online at International Journal of Scientific Reports is dedicated to publishing research from all areas of science and technology. The journal has a broad coverage of Medical sciences, Dental sciences, Physiotherapy, Biological sciences, Pharmaceutical sciences, Earth and environmental sciences, Physical sciences. International Journal of Scientific Reports is one of the fastest communication journals and articles are published online within short time after acceptance of manuscripts. The types of articles accepted include original research articles, review articles, editorial, news, case reports, short communications, correspondence, images, problem solving, perspectives and new updates. It is published monthly and available in print and online version.</p> <p><em><strong>Aims and scope</strong></em></p> <p><strong>Biological sciences</strong></p> <p>Cancer, Structural biology, Biophysics, Zoology, Systems biology, Evolution, Biological techniques, Stem cells, Neuroscience, Genetics, Microbiology, Biotechnology, Computational biology and bioinformatics, Physiology, Biochemistry, Psychology, Ecology, Developmental biology, Drug discovery, Plant sciences, Chemical biology, Molecular biology, Immunology, Cell biology</p> <p><strong>Health sciences</strong></p> <p>Pathogenesis, Risk factors, Biomarkers, Diseases, Signs and symptoms, Anatomy, Medical research, Health care, Health occupations, Dental sciences, Physiotherapy, Pharmaceutical sciences</p> <p><strong>Earth and environmental sciences</strong></p> <p>Planetary science, Environmental sciences, Environmental social sciences, Ecology, Climate sciences, Solid Earth sciences</p> <p><strong>Physical sciences</strong></p> <p>Optics and photonics, Astronomy and planetary science, Nanoscience and technology, Mathematics and computing, Materials science, Chemistry, Engineering, Physics</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2454-2156</p> <p><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2454-2164</p> <p><strong>Issues: 12 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix: 10.18203</strong></p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), which operates <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef (DOI)</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Manuscript Submission</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Scientific Reports accepts manuscript submissions through <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a>:</p> <p>About the Journal &gt; <a title="Online Submissions" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a></p> <p>Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.</p> <p>Please check out the video on our YouTube Channel:</p> <p>Steps to register and submit a manuscript:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Problem Logging In-Clear cookies:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>If you find any difficulty in online submission of your manuscript, please contact editor at <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Abbreviation</strong></p> <p>The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Int J Sci Rep.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing information</strong></p> <p>The journal is indexed with</p> <p><strong><a href=";journalId=43334" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a></strong>, </p> <p><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region (WHO)</a></strong>,</p> <p><strong><a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit (MDPI)</a></strong>,</p> <p><strong><a title=";referer=brief_results" href=";referer=brief_results" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OCLC (WorldCat)</a></strong>,</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a>,</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Index</a>,</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>,</p> <p><a title="LOCKSS" href="http://localhost/index.php/scirep/gateway/lockss" target="_blank" rel="noopener">LOCKSS</a>, </p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">J-Gate</a>,</p> <p><a href=";format=full&amp;fIDnum=%7c" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/RoMEO</a>,</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICMJE</a>, </p> <p><a href=";subAction=pub&amp;publisherID=3072&amp;journalID=35437&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=25467&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=1&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a>, </p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>.</p> en-US (Editor) (Editor) Thu, 23 May 2024 16:38:19 +0530 OJS 60 Zilucoplan: a novel therapeutic approach to treat generalized myasthenia gravis <p>Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by muscle weakness due to autoantibodies targeting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Zilucoplan, a novel complement inhibitor, has shown promise in managing generalized MG (gMG) by blocking the terminal complement cascade. This article provides an overview of Zilucoplan's pharmacological properties, including its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. Clinical trials, including a phase 3 trial (RAISE), have demonstrated Zilucoplan's efficacy in improving muscle strength and function, as measured by the MG-ADL (MG-activities of daily life) score, compared to placebo. The safety profile of Zilucoplan is favorable, with injection-site reactions being the most common adverse event. Notably, Zilucoplan effectively inhibits both wild-type and clinical C5 variants, expanding its potential utility for patients who do not respond well to existing treatments. While further research is needed to assess its long-term safety and efficacy, Zilucoplan represents a valuable addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for managing gMG.</p> Fatima Laique, Sameen Mukhtar, Mubashir Mohiuddin Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Unlocking hope: talquetamab in multiple myeloma treatment: a bispecific breakthrough targeting CD3 and GPRC5D <p>Multiple myeloma (MM) presents a significant global health burden, with disparities in incidence and outcomes reflecting challenges in recognition and treatment. Talquetamab, a bispecific CD3 T-cell engager targeting G-protein coupled receptor family C group 5 member D (GPRC5D), has emerged as a promising immunotherapy for relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM). In August 2023, talquetamab received accelerated approval from the US FDA for RRMM treatment, followed by conditional marketing authorization from the EMA. Clinical trials demonstrated talquetamab's efficacy, with overall response rates (ORR) of 69% and 76% in heavily pretreated RRMM patients. The phase I monumenTAL-1 trial showcased talquetamab's effectiveness, particularly in high-risk MM and extramedullary disease, with ORRs around 71-74%. Subsequent phase 2 results reaffirmed its efficacy, even in patients with prior T-cell redirection therapies. Combination therapy with daratumumab further enhanced talquetamab's efficacy, addressing concerns of T cell exhaustion. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed sustained responses and manageable adverse events with subcutaneous administration, facilitating convenient dosing regimens. However, talquetamab carries risks of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurologic toxicity, necessitating close monitoring and prompt management. Common adverse events included fever, CRS, musculoskeletal pain, and infections, although severe events were infrequent. Vigilant management strategies, including prophylactic measures and supportive care, mitigate these risks. In conclusion, talquetamab represents a significant advancement in RRMM treatment, offering a promising avenue for T-cell redirection therapy. Ongoing research aims to optimize treatment sequencing and combination strategies, fostering improved outcomes for MM patients. Continued investigation will refine the strategic integration of talquetamab and other immunotherapies, paving the way for enhanced treatment efficacy and patient care in RRMM.</p> Suhaina Amir, Fatima Laique, Muhammad Mazhar Azam Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Assessing the diagnostic impact of P63, PSA and BCL-2 proteins in premalignant and malignant prostate tissues <p><strong>Background:</strong> Prostate cancer (CaP) is increasingly becoming a major health issue affecting men as cancer-related fatalities are attributable to the condition. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) diagnostic criteria can help in gene-targeted therapy and help reduce its prevalence. This study is to assess the diagnostic impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), P63 and BCL-2 antibodies in CaP.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A case-controlled retrospective study was carried out on eighty (80) prostrate tissue blocks retrieved from the pathology archive of Ekiti State university teaching hospital Ado Ekiti. IHC analysis of the selected antibodies was carried out and also stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) for second opinion and confirmation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed that all the CaP samples had 100% positivity with varying reactivity to the IHC biomarkers; PSA had 100% positivity and MPR of 94% due to its multiple weaknesses as a biomarker p63 is a basal cells marker.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The expressions of these antibodies were observed in the progression of CaP. Although these markers are useful in predicting the progression from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) to CaP, none of them can be utilised in isolation to a conclusion. Hence, they should be used in conjunction with one another to make up for their limitations. The immunohistochemical markers are beneficial in CaP diagnosis.</p> Aderonke C. Ogunlayi, Victor O. Ekundina, Adedapo O. Kehinde, Linus A. Enye, Adegoke O. Aremu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Quality of multiple choice question items: item analysis <p><strong>Background:</strong> There are different types of exam formats for educational assessment. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are frequently utilized assessment tools in health education. Considering the reliability and validity in developing MCQ items is vital. Educators often face the difficulty of developing credible distractors in MCQ items. Poorly constructed MCQ items make an exam easier or too difficult to be answered correctly by students as intended learning objectives. Checking the quality of MCQ items is overlooked and too little is known about it. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the quality of MCQ items using the item response theory model.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among MCQ items of public health courses administered to 2<sup>nd</sup> year nursing students at Injibara university. A total of 50 MCQ items and 200 alternatives were evaluated for statistical item analysis. The quality of MCQ items was assessed by difficulty index (DIF), discrimination index (DI), and distractor efficiency (DE) using students’ exam responses. Microsoft excel sheet and SPSS version 26 were used for data management and analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Post-exam item analysis showed that 11 (22%) and 22 (44%) MCQs had too difficult and poor ranges for difficulty and discriminating powers respectively. The overall DE was 71.3%. About forty (20%) distractors were non-functional. Only 8 (16%) MCQs fulfilled the recommended criteria for all-DIF, DI, and DE parameters.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The desirable criteria for quality parameters of MCQ items were satisfied only in a few items. The result implies the need for quality improvement. Continuous trainings are required to improve the instructors’ skills to construct quality educational assessment tools.</p> Ayenew Takele Alemu, Hiwot Tesfa, Addisu Mulugeta, Enyew Tale Fenta, Mahider Awoke Belay Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Role of defective mirror neurons in causing autism spectrum disorder and the effectiveness of current treatment strategies for autism <p>The presence of mirror neurons (MN) in the premotor cortex, and parietal regions of the brain, has always been an area of interest to neurophysiologists, because unlike most neurons, they are activated, not only while an individual is performing an action, but also when one witnesses another experiencing a sentiment, and hence, is compelled to do the same. This phenomenon, helps develop empathy, as well as an individual's social behavior. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined as a socially isolating disease, and has been hypothesised to be caused by defective MNs. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 1 out of every 100 children suffer from ASD. Although many studies have proven that the impaired MN system is the underlying cause of the cognitive function defects seen in these individuals, the exact role it plays in causing the disease is still unclear.</p> Eman Javed, Fareeha Masood, Naz Elahi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Combination therapy for hypertension management: insights from the Indian experts <p>Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) pose a significant global health challenge, with India bearing a disproportionate burden of CVD-related morbidity and mortality. Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for CVDs, affecting nearly 30% of the Indian population. Achieving target blood pressure (BP) levels is crucial for reducing cardiovascular risk, necessitating aggressive antihypertensive therapy. Combination therapy has emerged as a cornerstone in HTN management, especially in high-risk patients. This review delves into the literature and perspectives of Indian cardiologists on combination therapy for HTN management. Despite the efficacy of contemporary antihypertensive medications, a substantial proportion of patients fail to reach target BP levels with monotherapy. Combination therapy offers synergistic effects, addressing multiple pathways involved in HTN pathogenesis. Recent guidelines recommend initiating treatment with two-drug combinations, transitioning to three-drug combinations in resistant cases. Combination therapy not only enhances BP control but also reduces the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality compared to monotherapy. Optimal management of HTN requires personalized approaches, considering individual patient profiles and comorbidities such as coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and heart failure (HF). In such cases, combination therapy plays a pivotal role in mitigating cardiovascular risks. ARB/CCB combination therapy, particularly telmisartan/amlodipine, demonstrates significant efficacy and tolerability across various patient populations, including those with metabolic risk factors and renal impairment. Expert recommendations highlight the importance of individualized therapy, patient education, early diagnosis, and initiation with dual therapy in India. Strategies to improve medication adherence and compliance, such as single-pill double or triple combinations, are emphasized. Moreover, awareness of newer treatment options and contactless diagnostic instruments is crucial for optimizing HTN management. In conclusion, combination therapy stands as a cornerstone in HTN management, offering enhanced efficacy, tolerability, and cardiovascular protection. Tailored approaches guided by expert recommendations are essential to address the growing burden of HTN and reduce the socioeconomic impact of CVDs in India.</p> Peeyush Jain, S. C. Jha Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Experimental animal models in traumatic brain injury research: a comprehensive review of methods and outlook <p>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant public health concern worldwide, necessitating effective research models to elucidate its pathophysiology and develop therapeutic interventions. Animal models play a crucial role in TBI research, offering valuable insights into injury mechanisms and potential treatments. However, selecting the appropriate model can be challenging due to diverse array of available options and their respective advantages and limitations. In this comprehensive review, we examine four commonly used animal models of TBI: the weight drop, fluid percussion, cortical impact, and blast injury models. Each model is characterized by distinct injury mechanisms, allowing researchers simulate various aspects of TBI pathology. We discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages of each model, providing insights into their applications and considerations for model selection based on research objectives and outcome measures. Furthermore, we highlight emerging directions in TBI modelling, emphasizing the importance of refining and innovating models to replicate the complexity of human TBI. By critically evaluating and understanding the subtlety of different TBI models, researchers can make informed decisions to enhance the translational potential of preclinical TBI research and ultimately improve clinical outcomes for TBI patients.</p> Umar Faruk Saidu, Ibrahim Bulama, Andrew Onu, Abdullahi Yahaya Abbas, Yusuf Saidu, Lawal Suleman Bilbis Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Scientific Reports Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0530