DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20222156
Published: 2022-08-24

Evaluation of serum folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine among blood donors in Lagos State University teaching hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

Ebele I. Uche, Akinsegun A. Akinbami, Rafautu Bamiro, Ibukun O. Adeyemi, Nda Ibrahim

Abstract


Background: Folate, vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia have been reported as important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular events and ischaemic stroke. These vitamin deficiencies are also implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases like anaemia, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and cancers. This study determined the serum levels of vitamins B12, folate, and homocysteine among blood donors in the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.

Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study done among blood donors at the donor clinic of LASUTH Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. One hundred blood donors who met the donor inclusion criteria of LASUTH were recruited consecutively into the study. Five ml of venous blood was collected from each consenting participant into ethylene Diamine Tetra-acetic Acid (EDTA) and plain bottles for the determination of full blood count and folate, vitamin B12/homocysteine respectively. Data were analyzed with statistical package for social science version 23.0, the p value was set at ≤0.05.

Results: The mean age of the study participants was 33.36±8.31 years. The mean serum homocysteine, folate and VitB12 levels among the study participants were 5.59±9.14 nmol/l, 21.57±4.15ng/ml and 1694.38±592.83 pg/ml respectively. About 8% of the study participants had serum homocysteine levels more than 15nmol/L, 4% had vitamin B12 levels less than 203pg/ml while all 100 participants had normal folate levels of 4ng/ml and above.

Conclusions: The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia, vitaminB12 and folate deficiencies among blood donors in LASUTH is low.


Keywords


Blood donors, Folate, Vitamin B12, Homocysteine, ELISA

Full Text:

PDF

References


Naruszewicz M, Jankowska EA, Zymlinski R, Bukowska H, Millo B, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with symptomatic chronic heart failure: prevalence and prognostic importance pilot study. Atherosclerosis. 2007;194(2):408-14.

The Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2002;288;2015-22.

Sacco RL, Anand K, Lee HS, Boden-Albala B, Stabler S. Homocysteine and the risk of ischemic stroke in a triethnic cohort: the NOrthern MAnhattan Study. Stroke J Cerebral Cir. 2004;35(10):2263-9.

Lehotsky J, Tothova B, Kovalska M, Dobrota D, Benova A, et al. Role of homocysteine in the ischemic stroke and development of ischemic tolerance. Front Neurosci. 2016;10:538.

Boysen G, Brander T, Christensen H, Gideon R, Truelsen T. Homocysteine and risk of recurrent stroke. Stroke J Cerebral Cir. 2003;34(5):1258-61.

Selhub J, Jacques PF, Wilson PW, Rush D, Rosenberg IH. Vitamin status and intake as primary determinants of homocysteinemia in an elderly population. JAMA. 2014;2:45-9.

Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, Spence JD, Pettigrew LC, Howard VJ, et al. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291(5):565-75.

Barnett HMJ, Mohr TP, Stein BM, Yastu FM. Stroke: pathophysiology diagnosis and management. 3rd ed. NewYork: Churchill Livingston; 2000.

Robinson K, Mayer E, Miller D. Hyperhomo-cysteinemia and low pyridoxal phosphate. Common and independent reversible risk factors for coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1995;92:2825-30.

Chasan-Taber L, Selhub J, Rosenberg I. A Prospective study of folate and vitamin B6 and risk of myocardial infarction in U.S. physicians. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996;15:136-43.

Franken D, Boers G, Blom H. Treatment of mild hyperhomocysteinaemia in vascular disease patients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1994;14:465-70.

Watkins D, Rosenblatt DS. Functional methionine synthase deficiency (cblE and cblG): clinical and biochemical heterogeneity. Am J Med Genet. 1989;34:427-34.

Levitt AJ, Karlinsky H. Folate, vitamin B12 and cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1992;86:301-5.

Ray JG, Laskin CA. Folic acid and homocyst(e)ine metabolic defects and the risk of placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and spontaneous pregnancy loss: a systematic review. Placenta. 1999;20:519-29.

Krebs MO, Bellon A, Mainguy G, Jay TM, Frieling H. One-carbon metabolism and schizophrenia: Current challenges and future directions. Trends Mol Med. 2009;15:562-70.

Gropper SS, Smith JL. Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. United States: Cengage Learning; 2005: 371.

Kelly RJ, Gruner TM, Furlong JM, Sykes AR. Analysis of corrinoids in ovine tissues. Biomed Chromat. 2006;20:806-14.

Dowd P, Shapiro M, Kang K. The mechanisms of action of vitamin B12. J Am Chem Soc. 1975;97:4754-7.

Allen RH, Stabler SP, Savage DG, Lindenbaum J. Metabolic abnormalities in cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate deficiency. FASEB J. 1993;7:1344-53.

Baik HW, Russell RM. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999;19:357-77.

Carmel R. Current concepts in cobalamin deficiency. Annu Rev Med. 2000;51:357-75.

Blom HJ, Smulders Y. Overview of homocysteine and folate metabolism. With special references to cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011;34:75-81.

Austin RC, Lentz SR, Werstuck GH. Role of hyperhomocysteinemia in endothelial dysfunction and atherothrombotic disease. Cell Death Differ. 2004;11:56-64.

AA Akande, OT Salisu PK. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels in healthy nigerian volunteers. Afr J. 2009;3(1):45611-3.

Zappacosta B, Persichilli S, Lacoviello L, Castelonuovo AD, Graziano M, Gervasoni J, et al. Folate, Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine status in an Italian blood donor population. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23:473-80.

Okubadejo NU, Oladipo OO, Adeyomoye AA, Awosanya GO, Danesi MA. Exploratory study of plasma total homocysteine and its relationship to short-term outcome in acute ischaemic stroke in Nigerians. BMC Neurol. 2008;8:26.

Christopher R, Nagaraja D, Shankar SK. Homocysteine and cerebral stroke in developing countries. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(22):2393-401.

Nelen WL, Blom HJ, Steegers EA, den Heijer M, Thomas CM, Eskes TK. Homocysteine and folate levels as risk factors for recurrent early pregnancy loss. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95(4):519-24.

van der Put NJ. Folate, homocysteine and neural tube defects: an overview. Exp Biol Med. 2001;226(4): 243-70.

Mansoor MA, Bergmark C, Svardal AM, Ueland PM. Redox status and protein binding of plasma homocysteine and other aminothiols In patients with early onset peripheral vascular disease. Artheroscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1995;15:332.

Al-Obaidi MK, Philippou H, Stubbs PJ. Relationships between homocysteine, Factor VIIa and thrombin generation in acute coronary syndromes. Circulation. 2000;101:372.

Nappo F, De Rossa N, Marfella R. Impairment of endothelial functions by acute Hyperhomo-cysteinaemia and reversal by antioxidant vitamins. JAMA. 1999;281:2113.

Haijar KA. Homocysteine-induced modulation of tissue plasminogen activator binding to its endothelial cell membrane receptor. J Clin Invest. 1993;91:2873.

Pheeko K, Williams Y, Schey SA, Andrews VE, Dudley JM, Hoffbrand AV. Serum or red cell?. J Coll Physicians Lond. 1997;31:291-5.

Jaffe JP, Schilling RF. Erythrocyte folate levels: a clinical study. Am J Hematol. 1991;36:116-21.

Cheng CH, Tsai TP, Chen WS, Huang YC. Serum folate is a reliable indicator of hyperhomocyteihn-aemia and borderline hyperhomocysteinemia in young adults. Nutr Res. 2009;29:743-9.

De-Regie LM, Fernandez-Gaxiola AC, Donswell T, Pena-Rosas JP. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010.

Molly AM, Kirke PN, Brody LC, Scott JM, Mills JL. Effects of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies during pregnancy on fetal, infant and child development. Food Nutr Bull. 2008;29(2):S101-11.

Renata B, Francesca F, Silvia U, Marianna R, Sabrina G, Giorgio G. B vitamin blood concentrations and one-carbon metabolism polymorphisms in a sample of Italian women and men attending a unit of transfusion medicine: a cross sectional study. Eur J Nutr. 2021; 60:2643-54.

Oosterhuis WP, Niessen RW, Bossuyt PM, Sanders GT, Sturk A. Diagnostic value of the mean corpuscular volume in the detection of vitamin B12 deficiency. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2000;60(1):9-18.