Hepatocellular carcinoma in eastern India, a detail analytical report from a tertiary care hospital


  • Sudeb Mukherjee MD (PGT) Resident, Department Of General Medicine, R.G.Kar Medical College & Hospital Kolkata
  • Kingshuk Dhar MD, DM(Gastroenterology) Associate Professor, Department of Gastroenterology, R.G.Kar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, 700004,
  • Suhana Datta MBBS, Junior Resident, Department of General Medicine, R.G.Kar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, 700004.
  • Apurba Kumar Mukherjee MD. Professor & H.O.D. of Department of of General Medicine, R.G.Kar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India,




Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the one of the commonest tumour worldwide.  A detailed clinical profile including its etiology and vast presentation is not available in Eastern India.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of 90 patients with HCCwas done. Total 90 patients (male 81, female9)  fulfillingdiagnostic criteria for HCC adopted by Barcelona-2000 EASL conferencewere analyzed for clinical, etiological, biochemical and radiological profile.

Results: Underlying cirrhosis was seen in 60% cases with Hepatitis B virus being the most common (33.3%) etiologic agent followed by Alcoholism (26.6%) in cirrhotic range. In 76.7% of HCC patients have AFP level more than 500 unit and practically diagnostic of HCC. Almost all patients presented with advanced disease (96.7%). Only 3.3% of HCC patients presented with mild disease.

Conclusions: The characteristics of HCC in eastern India are somewhat different from the rest of worlds. Alcohol and HBV infection are the two most important etiology prevailing here. 

Keywords: HCC (Hepatocellular carcinoma), AFP (Alpha fetoprotein), HBV (Hepatitis B virus), HCV (Hepatitis C virus)


Metrics Loading ...


World Health Organization. World cancer report, 2014. In: WHO, eds. WHO Report. Geneva: WHO; 2014: Chapter 1.1.

Bruix J, Sherman M. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2005;42:1208-36.

ICMR. Annual report. In: ICMR, eds. National Cancer Registry Programme. New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research; 2008.

Jayant K, Rao RS, Nene BM, Dale PS. Rural cancer registry at Barshi - report 1988-92. In: Jayant K, Rao RS, Nene BM, Dale PS eds. A Report. Barshi: Rural Cancer Registry; 1994.

Bruix J, Sherman M, Llovet JM, Beaugrand M, Lencioni R, Burroughs AK, et al. Clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusions of the Barcelona-2000 EASL Conference. J Hepatol. 2001;35:421-30.

Bosch FX. Global epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. In: Okuda K, Tabor E, eds. Liver Cancer. 1st ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1997: 13-27.

Dinshaw KA, Rao DN, Shroff PD. Hospital cancer registry: annual report 1994. In: Dinshaw KA, Rao DN, Shroff PD, eds. A Report. Mumbai: Tata Memorial Hospital; 1997.

Sarin SK, Thakur V, Guptan RK, Saigal S, Malhotra V, Thyagarajan SP, et al. Profile of hepatocellular carcinoma in India: an insight into the possible etiologic associations. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;16:666-73.

Singh SV, Goyal SK, Chowdhury BL. Primary carcinoma of liver in Udaipur. J Assoc Physicians India. 1971;19:693-5.

Agarwal AK, Manvi KN, Mehta JM, Shah MJ. Clinical diagnosis of hepatoma. J Assoc Physicians India. 1966;14:465-8.

Okuda M. Hepatocellular carcinoma: recent progress. Hepatology. 1992;15:948-63.

Verner S. Viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gut. 1994;35:825-32. Omata M, Ashcavai M, Liew C-T, Peters RL. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the USA, etiologic consideration. Localization of hepatitis B Ags. Gastroenterology. 1979;76:279-87.

Sarin SK. Diagnostic paradox of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;22:23.

Collier J, Sherman M. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 1998;27:273-8.

Sherman M. Alpha-fetoprotein: an obituary. J Hepatol. 2001;34:603-5.

Hill PG, Johnson S, Madangopalan N. Serum alpha-fetoprotein and hepatitis B antigen in subjects with hepatoma in south India. Indian J Med Res. 1977;65:482-7.






Original Research Articles