Metabolic syndrome and serum ferritin level in postmenopausal women in urban cities in Enugu State, Nigeria
Keywords:Metabolic Syndrome, Ferritin, Postmenopausal women
Background: Physiological and biochemical changes that alter the general health of women are seen in menopause which include increase in adiposity and elevated serum ferritin. There is a dearth of information on the prevalence and common risk factors of MS and their association with iron stores of the body among postmenopausal women (POMW) in Enugu. Hence, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, the most prevalent components of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with serum ferritin level in postmenopausal women in Enugu, Nigeria.
Methods: The study was a cross sectional study, carried out from February to August 2013 among two hundred and twenty four (224) apparently healthy postmenopausal women aged 40 to 83 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined using National Cholesterol Education Programme, Adult Treatment Panel III criteria.
Results: The most frequent components of metabolic syndrome (MS) seen among the subjects were high waist circumference (WC) (70.1%), high blood pressure (66.5%) and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (25.4%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the women was 29.0% while the mean level of serum ferritin of subjects with metabolic syndrome showed no significant (p >0.05) difference when compared to subjects without MS.Conclusions: The most frequent cluster of the risk factor of MS in the population studied was high WC, high blood pressure and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Although serum ferritin is slightly associated with FPG and WHR, it may not be used as diagnostic tool for MS in the group studied.
Jian J, Pelle E, Huang X. Iron and Menopause. Does increased iron affect the health of postmenopausal women? Antioxidant and Redox Signaling. 2009;11(2):2939-43.
Shende SS, Iyer CM, Makajan VV, Chakole S, Kute P, Sonare A. Effect of duration on lipid profile status on postmenopausal women. The Health Agenda. 2004;2(3):90-4.
Poehlman ET, Tchernof A. Traversing the menopause: Changes in energy expenditure and body composition. Coronary Artery Disease. 1998;9(12):799-803.
Huang Z, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Hunter DJ, Manson JE, et al. Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk. JAMA. 1997;278(17):1407-11.
Achie LN, Olorunshola KV, Toryila JE, Tender JA. The body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure of postmenopausal women in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2012;4(3):329-32.
Cho SH. Serum ferritin and metabolic syndrome in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Journal of Korean Society on Menopause. 2011;17(13):166-173.
Piperno A, Trombini P, Gelosa M, Mauri V, Pecci V, Vergani A, et al. Increased serum ferritin is common in men with essential hypertension. Journal of Hypertension. 2002;20:1513-8.
Jehn M, Clark JM, Guallar E. Serum ferritin and risk of the metabolic syndrome in US adults. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:2422-8.
Gillum RF. Association of serum ferritin and indices of body fat distribution and obesity in Mexican American men: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:639-45.
Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement. Circulation. 2005;112:2735-52.
National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III): Final report. Circulation. 2002;106:3143-21.
World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. JAMA. 2000;284:3043–5.
Trinder P. Determination of blood glucose using 4-aminophenazone. Clin Path. 1969;22:246.
Mcgowan MW, Artiss JD, Strandergh DR, Zak BA. Peroxidase coupled method for the colorimetric determination of serum TG. Clin Chem. 1983;29:533-42.
Lopes-virella MF, Stone P, Ellis S, Colwell JA. Cholesterol determination in high density lipoproteins separated by three different methods. Clin Chem. 1977;23:882-4.
Fairbank VF, Klee GG. Biochemical aspect of Hematology. In: Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, 4th Ed. Burtis, CA. and Ashwood, ER. Ed, Philadelphia. W.B.Saunders company; 1966: 704-744.
Petri-Nahas EA, Padoani NP, Nahas- Neto J, Orsatti FL, Tarduo AP, Dias R. Women. Climacteric. 2009;12(5):431-8.
Jouyandeh Z, Nayebzadeh F, Qorbani M, Asadi M. Metabolic syndrome and menopause. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders. 2013;12:1.
Marjani A, Moghasemi S. The metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Gorgan. Int J Endocrinol. 2012;10:1155-61.
Paszkowski T, Kłodnicka M. Hormonal Therapy of menopause. Menopause. 2007;2:106-9.
Toth MJ, Sites CK, Eltabbakh GH, Poehlman MT. Effect of menopausal status on insulin-stimulated glucose disposal: comparison of middle-aged premenopausal and early postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:801-6.
Ulasi II, Ijeoma CK, Onodugo OD. A community based study of hypertension and cardiometabolic syndrome in semi- urban and rural communities in Nigeria. Biomedical Central Health Services Research. 2010;10:71.
Adediran OS, Jimoh AK, Ogbera AO. Metabolic syndrome: Pathogenesis of its predictors. Postgraduate Doctors (Caribean). 2008;22:35-45.
Alebiosu CO, Odusan BO. Metabolic syndrome in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004;96:817-21.
Nwegbu MM, Jaiyesimi OO. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst apparently healthy Nigerian adults in a hospital setting. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2012;3(1):77-82.
Oladapo OO, Salako L, Shoyinka K, Adedapo K, Falase AO. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among a rural Yoruba South-Western Nigeria population: a population-based survey. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa. 2010;21(1):26-31.
Ogbera A. Prevalence and gender distribution of metabolic syndrome. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome. 2010;2:1-5.
Tran A, Gelaye B, Girma B, Lemma G, Berhane Y, Bekele T, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among working adults in Ethiopia. International Journal of Hypertension. 2011;1:8.
Gyaboko M, Amoah AG, Martey-Marbell A, Snow RC. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in rural population in Ghana. Biomedical Central Endocrine Disorders. 2012;12:25.
Bahijri SM, Raddadi RM. The importance local criteria in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia. Ther Adv in Endo and Metab. 2013;4(2):51-9.
Morris A, Ferdinand KC. Racial ethnic differences in lipid profiles. Clinical Lipidology. 2009;4(6):741-54.
Choi KM, Lee KW, Kim HY, Seo JA, Kim SG, Kim NH, et al. Association among serum ferritin, alanine aminotransferase levels, and metabolic syndrome in Korean postmenopausal women. Metabolism. 2005;54(11):1510-4.
Ponholzer A, Temml C, Rauchenwald M, Marszalek M, Madersbacher S. Is the metabolic syndrome a risk factor for female sexual dysfunction in sexually active women?. Int J Impot Res. 2008;20(1):100-4.
Ruan X, Jin J, Hua L, Liu Y, Wang J, Liu S. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese postmenopausal women and the optimum body composition indices to predict it. Menopause. 2010;17(3):566-70.
Hidalgo LA, Chedraui PA, Morocho N, Alvarado M, Chavez D, Huc A. The metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Ecuador. Gynecological Endocrinology. 2006;22(8):447–54.
Hee MK, Park J, So YR, Jongoh KIM. The effect of menopause on the metabolic syndrome among Korean women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(3):701-6.
Janssen I, Powell LH, Crawford S, Lasley B, Sutton-Tyrrell K. Menopause and metabolic syndrome: the study of women’s health across the nation. Arch of Int Med. 2008;168:1568-75.