A rare case of male Turner syndrome for penetrating keratoplasty


  • Shobha Ravishankar Department of Anaesthesiology, Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India




Turner syndrome, Genetic, Difficult airway


Turner syndrome (TS) is a complex genetic disorder. These abnormalities especially those relating to the airway and cardiovascular system, pose a challenge to the anaesthesiologist. The main anatomo-physiological changes pertaining to the anaesthesiologist include a short neck, maxillary and mandibular hypoplasia which might be responsible for difficult airway. The shorter length of trachea as well as higher location of its bifurcation predispose to bronchial intubation and accidental endotracheal extubation when tracheal cannula is under traction. The presence of cardiopathies, endocrine and gastro intestinal disorders, liver and kidney changes as well as osteoarticular involvement besides ophthalmologic and hearing impairments are very frequent and should be detected during pre-anaesthetic evaluation. The incidence of TS is variously reported as 1:3000 to 1:10000 live (female) births. Very few cases of male turner have been reported in literature.



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Author Biography

Shobha Ravishankar, Department of Anaesthesiology, Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Senoir Consultant



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