Screening for congenital hypothyroidism: results of screening 5600 Ardabil province infants


  • Mehrdad Mirzarahimi Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil
  • Manouchehr Barak Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil
  • Ali Mardi Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil
  • Afsaneh Enteshari-Moghaddam Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil



Congenital hypothyroidism, Prevalence, Screening, Ardabil


Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency which varies more by geographic areas and affecting 1 in 3000 to 4000 of newborns. The aim of this study was to investigate the screening of CH results in in Ardabil Province, Iran.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 158624 neonates during 2007 to 2013 which were screened for CH by measuring serum TSH obtained by heel prick. Of all neonates 5600 neonates who had a TSH ≥5 mU/L were recalled for measurement of serum T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in venous samples. Collected data analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.16.  

Results: The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism was found to be 1:916 with a female to male ratio of 0.76:1. In 220 patients with CH, 40 patients were diagnosed with permanent CH (18.2%) and 140 with transient hypothyroidism (81.8%). The frequency of transient hypothyroidism was 4.5 times more than permanent hypothyroidism and was significant. In newborns with permanent hypothyroidism the average of TSH levels in the first and second times was 37.15 and 31.56 μIU/ml, respectively.

Conclusions: Results showed that the prevalence of CH in Ardabil province was significantly high and comparing the results of this study with other studies in other countries suggests the proper efficacy of congenital hypothyroidism screening in Ardabil's health system. Also we should be attention to other environmental factors especially during pregnancy which affect the performance of the mother’s thyroid. 


Metrics Loading ...


Morreale dE, Obregon MJ, Escobar dR. Role of thyroid hormone during early brain development. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;151(Suppl 3):25-37.

Bernal J. Thyroid hormones and brain development. Vitamin Horms. 2205;71:95-122.

Rovet J, Daneman D. Congenital hypothyroidism: a review of current diagnostic and treatment practices in relation to neuropsychologic outcome. Paediatr Drugs 2003;5(3):141-9.

Bargagna S, Canepa G, Costagli C, Dinetti D, Marcheschi M, Millepiedi S, et al. Neuro-psychological follow- up in early- treatment congenital hypothyroidism:a problem- oriented approach. Thyroid 2000;10 (3):243-9.

Bongers- Schokking JJ, de Muinck Keizer- Schrama SM. Influence of timing and dose of thyroid hormone replacement on mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development in children with congenital hypothyroidism. J Pedistr. 2005;147(6):768-7.

Dussault JH. The anecdotal history of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(12):4332-4.

Alm J, Larsson A, Zetterstrom R. congenital hypothyroidism in Sweden. Incidence and age at diagnosis. Acta Paediatr Scand. 2008;67(1):1-3.

Fisher DA. Second International Conference on Neonatal Thyroid Screening:progress report. JP Ediatr. 2003;102(5):653- 4.

Gaudino R, Garel C, Czernichow P, Leger J. Proportion of various types of thyroid disorders among newborns with congenital hypothyroidism and normally located glandl a regional cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;62(4):444-8.

Skordis N, Toumba M, Savva SC, Erakleous E, Topouzi M, vogazianos M, Argyriou A. High prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in the Greek Cypriot population:results of the neonatal screening program 1990-2000. J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2005;18(5):453- 61.

Harris KB, Pass KA. Increase in congenital hypothyroidism in New York State and in the Unites States. MolGent Metab. 2007;91(3):268-77.

Hashemipour M, Hashemi D, Hovsepian S, Amini M, Hosseiny L. Outcome of Congenitally Hypothyroid Screening Program in Isfahan:Iran From Prevention to Treatment. Int J Prevent Med. 2010;1(2):92- 7.

Ordookhani A, Mirmiran P, Najafi R, Hedayati M, Azizi F. congenital hypothyroidism in Iran. Indian J Pedistrics. 2003;70:625-8.

Karamozadeh Z, Amirhakimi Gh. Incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in Fars Province, Iran. Iran J Med Sci. 2002;17:78-80.

Âkha O, Shabani M, Kowsarian M, Ghafari V, Sajadi Saravi S. Prevalence of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Mazandaran Province, Iran, 2008. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2011;21(84):63-70

Ojule AC, Osotimehin BO. Maternal and neonatal thyroid status in Saki, Nigeria. Afr J Med Sci 1998;27:57-61.

Irie M, Nakijima H, Inomata H, Naruse H, Suwa S. Screening of neonatal Hypothyroidism in Japan. In: Therrell BL, Editor. Advances in neonatal screening Amsterdam. London: Elsevier; 1987: 41-47.

Adeniran KA1, Okolo AA, Onyiriuka AN. Thyroid profile of term appropriate for gestational age neonates in Nigeria: a forerunner to screening for congenital hypothyroidism. J Trop Pediatr. 2010;56(5):329-32.

Olivieri A, Fazzini C, Grandolfo ME, Medda E, Stazi MA, DArchivio M, et al. Congenital forms of hypothyroidism;study of risk factor al preventive intervention. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 1999;35;273-82.

Kaiserman I, Siebner R, Sack J. Regional and temporal fluctuations in the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in Israel. J Endocrinol Invest. 1995;18:595-601.

Sander J, Neiehaus C. Congenital hypothyroidism: result of screening 3000 neonates in lower Saxony. MMW Munch Med Wochenschr. 1980;122:309-12.

Yordam N, Calikoglu AS, Hatun S, Kandemir N, Oguz H, Tezic T, et al. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Turkey. Eur J Pediatr. 1995;154:614-6.

Henry G, Sobki SH, Othman JM. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism. Saudi Med J. 2002;23:529-35.

Sack J, Feldman I, Kaiserman I. Congenital hypothyroidism screening in the West Bank:a test case for screening in developing regions. Horm Res. 1998;50:151-4.

Siami R, Kosarian M, Valaei N, Hatami H, Mirzajani M R. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism and increase transient TSH, Mazandaran, 2006-2010. Research in Med. 2014;37(4):244-52.

Fagela-Domnigo C, Padilla CD, Cutiongco EM. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism among Filipino newborn infant Philippine newborn screening study group. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1999;30:20-2.

Mikelsaar RV, Zordania R, Viikmaa M, Kudrjavtseva G. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Estonia. J Med Screen. 1998;5:20-1.

Rivolta CM, Moya CM, Esperante SA, Gutnisky Vj, Verala V, Targovnik H.M. The thyroid as a model for molecular mechanisms in genetic diseases. Medicina (B Aires). 2005;65(3):257-67.

Hsiao PH, Chiu YN, Tsai WY, Su SC, Lee JS, Soong WT. Intellectual outcome of patients with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening. J Formos Med Assoc. 2001;100(1):40-4.

Rovet JF. Congenital hypothyroidism:long- term outcome. Thyroid. 1999;9(7):741-8.

Rovet JF, Ehrlch R. Psychoeducational outcome in children with early- treated congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatrics. 2000;105(3 Pt1):515-22.

Feizi A, Hashemipour M, Hovsepian S, Amirkhani Z, Klishadi R, Rafee Al Hosseini M, et al. Study of the Efficacy of Therapeutic Interventions in Growth Normalization of Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism Detected By Neonatal Screening. Iranian J Endocrinol Metabolism. 2011;13(6):681-9.

Ng SM, Wong SC, Didi M. Head circumference and linear growth during the first 3 years in treated congenital hypothyroidism in relation to aetiology and initial biochemical severity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004;61:155- 9.

Morin A, Guimarey L, Apezteguía M, Ansaldi M, Santucci Z. Linear growth in children with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening and treated early:a longitudinal study. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2002;15:973-7.






Original Research Articles