Moving beyond the metabolic syndrome: syndrome Z in Indian subcontinent: a case report and review of literature


  • Akash Mathur Department of Internal Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, Maharashtra
  • Tanmay Gandhi Department of Internal Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, Maharashtra
  • Aditya Bajaj Department of Internal Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, Maharashtra
  • Anil H. Inamdar Department of Internal Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, Maharashtra



Syndrome Z, OSA, Metabolic syndrome, Syndrome X, AHI


Conventionally the combination of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the metabolic syndrome (syndrome X) has been described as syndrome Z. With the dawn of modern era while there has been a rapid upsurge in the incidence of syndrome Z there has also been a paradigm shift in its topographical distribution. Syndrome Z earlier a disease predominantly of the developed world is now rapidly acquiring the magnitude of an epidemic in the developing nations as well. Coexisting OSA and metabolic syndrome also have a synergistic impact in increasing the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, we present here a case report of syndrome Z and review of literature from the Indian subcontinent to essentially prime the physicians regarding this syndrome with significant social and economic impact, so that early health measures can be initiated to identify and treat the syndrome Z epidemic.


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