Analysis of frequency and risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction
Keywords:Intrauterine growth restriction, Maternal factors, Perinatal outcomes, Placental factors
Background: Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses are at greater risk of developing fetal hypoxia, neonatal complications, impaired neurodevelopment, and also neonatal intensive care unit stay and neonatal mortality. They are also known to develop metabolic syndrome in adult life. So, the main objective of this study was to find out the frequency of intrauterine growth restriction, to identify the maternal and placental risk factors associated with intrauterine growth restriction and its perinatal outcome amongst pregnant women attending the Obstetric Outpatient Department in Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital.
Methods: A prospective study was conducted from June 2011 to June 2017, at Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, Kavre, Nepal. A singleton pregnancy, above 28 weeks of gestation with clinical diagnosis of IUGR and confirmed by ultrasonography were included in the study. The statistical analysis was performed by Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0 software.
Results: Maternal risk factors like preeclampsia, anaemia, low pregnancy body mass index and placental factors like retroplacental hemorrhage were mainly responsible for intrauterine growth restriction.
Conclusions: Antenatal risk factors responsible for IUGR are important for the management of IUGR pregnancies and to prevent adverse perinatal outcome.
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