Breast cancer among young girls: a KAP study conducted in Lahore


  • Amna Khalid Final Year MBBS, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Shamaila Hassnain MCPS Community Medicine, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Hafsah Gakhar Final Year MBBS, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Badar Khalid Final Year MBBS, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Fatima Zulfiqar Final Year MBBS, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ahmed Wahaj Final Year MBBS, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan



Breast cancer, Awareness, Screening practices


Background: Breast cancer is the second most frequently occurring malignant tumour. It's a progressive disease hence gradually developing into more fatal form from very small lesion. Knowledge and awareness about risk factors, symptoms and screening methods reduces the mortality and morbidity.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore. Data was collected anonymously on self-administrated questionnaire regarding awareness and knowledge about risk factors, presentations of breast cancer and screening practices about breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography.  

Results: A total of 400 females participated in this study. 34% had heard of BSE, 30% of CBE and 29.5% of the mammography. Only 21.8% had ever performed BSE and 14% had ever received CBE. On enquiring the reasons for not performing BSE 29% did not know how to do it and 14.3% indicated embarrassment as the cause of not performing CBE. Regarding the source of information internet was identified as the most popular one (64.8%) followed by breast cancer campaigns (58.5%). Participants had inadequate knowledge about risk factors and its presentations. There is much lack of information about mammography but participants were aware of the age (35-40years) to start this screening procedure.

Conclusions: Our studies revealed lack of awareness and knowledge with regard to breast cancer and it screening methods. There is utmost need to enhance the awareness and encouraging the performance of BSE, CBE and mammography among females from very young age to reduce its incidence.


Metrics Loading ...


Kanaga KC, Nithiya J, Shatirah MF. Awareness of breast cancer and screening procedures among Malaysian women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(8):1965-7.

Ranasinghe HM, Ranasinghe N, Rodrigo C, Seneviratne RD, Rajapakse S. Awareness of breast cancer among adolescent girls in Colombo, Sri Lanka: a school based study. BMC public health. 2013;13(1):1209.

Radi SM. Breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevent. 2013;14(7):4307-12.

World Cancer Research Fund International. Fact-sheet: Breast cancer statistics, 2012. Available at Accessed on 23 February 2016.

Available at: sheets_cancer.aspx. Accessed on 17 February 2016.

Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2015. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2015;65(1):5-29.

Alharbi NA, Alshammari MS, Almutairi BM, Makboul G, El-Shazly MK. Knowledge, awareness, and practices concerning breast cancer among Kuwaiti female school teachers. Alexandria J Med. 2012;48(1):75-82.

Linsell L, Burgess CC, Ramirez AJ. Breast cancer awareness among older women. British journal of cancer. 2008;99(8):1221-5.

Mohammad FA, Bayoumi MM, Megahed MM. Efficacy of Instructional Training Program in Breast Self-Examination & Breast Screening for Cancer among University Students. Public Health Res. 2013;3(3):71-8.

Noreen M, Murad S, Furqan M, Sultan A, Bloodsworth P. Knowledge and Awareness about Breast Cancer and its Early Symptoms among Medical and Non-Medical Students of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevent. 2015;16(3):979-84.

Bayoumi MM, Elbasuny MM, Nasser AM, Abdullah KM. Saudi Young Females' Level of Knowledge Regarding Cervical and Breast Cancer. Int J Nurs Sci. 2012;2(5):47-52.

Menhas R, Umer S. Breast Cancer among Pakistani Women. Iranian J Public Health. 2015;44(4):586-7.

Dawn. Available at 1140264. Accessed on 10 September 2016.

Gilani SI, Khurram M, Mazhar T, Mir ST, Ali S, Tariq S, Malik AZ. Knowledge, attitude and practice of a Pakistani female cohort towards breast cancer. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60(3):205-8.

Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV, Al-Jashamy K. Practice of breast self-examination among women in Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(8):3829-33.

Khokher S, Qureshi MU, Fatima W, Mahmood S, Saleem A. Impact of a Breast Health Awareness Activity on the Knowledge Level of the Participants and its Association with Socio- Demographic Features. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(14):5817-22.

Yoo BN, Choi KS, Jung KW, Jun JK. Awareness and practice of breast self-examination among Korean women: results from a nationwide survey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(1):123-5.

Akhtari-Zavare M, Juni MH, Ismail IZ, Said SM, Latiff LA. Health Beliefs and Breast Self-Examination among Undergraduate Female Students in Public Universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

Donnelly TT, Al Khater AH, Al-Bader SB, Al Kuwari MG, Al-Meer N, Malik M, et al. Beliefs and attitudes about breast cancer and screening practices among Arab women living in Qatar: a cross-sectional study. BMC Womens Health. 2013;13:49.

Abu-Helalah MA, Alshraideh HA, Al-Serhan AA, Kawaleet M, Nesheiwat AI. Knowledge, barriers and attitudes towards breast cancer mammography screening in jordan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(9):3981-90.

Akhigbe AO, Omuemu VO. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:203.

Khokhar A. Level of awareness regarding breast cancer and its screening amongst Indian teachers. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10(2):247-50.

Sathian B, Nagaraja SB, Banerjee I, Sreedharan J, De A, Roy B, et al. Awareness of breast cancer warning signs and screening methods among female residents of Pokhara valley, Nepal. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevent. 2014;15(11):4723-6.

Bener A, El Ayoubi HR, Moore MA, Basha B, Joseph S, Chouchane L. Do we need to maximise the breast cancer screening awareness? Experience with an endogamous society with high fertility. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10(4):599-604.






Original Research Articles