Published: 2020-06-23

Congenital malformations in ruminants and its surgical management: a retrospective study of Sokoto veterinary clinic, Nigeria

H. A. Bodinga, Abubakar Nura, Faruku Bande, Adamu A. Abubakar, Abubakar S. Yakubu, Buhari Salisu, Nafiu Abdullahi, Shaibu Mohammed Atabo


Background: Congenital defects, abnormalities of structures or functions present at birth, maybe as a result of genetic or environmental factors or both and in most cases; the exact etiology is not clear but can occur in all animals. These abnormalities are responsible for slowing down of genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals.

Methods: Available record of cases presented to Aliyu Jedo Veterinary Clinic, Sokoto from December 2015 to 2019 was used to investigate congenital malformation in ruminants based on species and sex. Surgery was carried out in all the cases with local anaesthesia (infiltration technique) using lignocaine. Surgical procedures carried out were rectopexy (atresia ani), gingivectomy (gingival fibromatosis), superficial keratectomy and temporary tarssorhaphy (dermoid cyst), casting and physiotherapy (contracted tendons).    

Results: A total of 47 congenital malformations; atresia ani 22 (46.8%), gingival fibromatosis 18 (38.3%), dermoid cyst 6 (12.8%), and contracted tendon 1 (2.1%) were reviewed in the study. The ovine species had the highest incidence of cases load recorded 23 (48.93%) followed by bovine 17 (36.17%) and then caprine species 7 (14.89%).  The incidence of all malformations was higher in males (68.1%) than in females (31.9%). All cases were attempted surgically with success in all the procedures.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that male ruminants have the highest prevalence of congenital malformation. Congenital malformations are more frequently seen in ovine and least seen in caprine. Atresia ani appeared to be the most commonly reported cases.


Congenital malformation, Ruminant, Atresia ani, Gingival fibromatosis, Dermoid cyst, Contracted tendon

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