A literature based on entry and development of human immunodeficiency virus into the human host


  • Arif Billah Department of Business, Economics and Social Development, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu
  • Mosharaf Hossain Department of Business, Economics and Social Development, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu




Development, HIV, Human host, Transmission


HIV is a global threat cause of millions of lives and evolved as one of the most dangerous epidemics in the recent era. Among all other viruses infect human, the nature, evolution and development of HIV have fluctuated. This paper is constructed by focusing on a brief of entry and development of HIV into the human being based on the literature. Summary of the paper clarifies that, HIV spillover from chimpanzees, mangabey and western gorilla to the human being and mutated from SIV into HIV long before from discovery in several possible human-animal contacts in Africa. Genetic mutations also found significant into the human host and several subgroups of HIV was identified. Possible ways of entry to the human host are distinguished as the exposure of horizontal and verticle transmission of HIV where the relative risks of these exposures were also quantified. The development process after exposure by HIV is found similar regarding the ways of transmission. Untreated subjects have shown different immunological dysfunction, even death, depending on the severity of the HIV and consequences of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.


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