DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20211037

A proportional study on the existence of coliform and fecal coliform in the post-treatment (filtered and boiled) water samples

Shihab Ahmed Khan, Mahbuba Akter Lubna, M. Sajedur Rahman Razeeb, Mrityunjoy Acharjee

Abstract


Background: The elimination of pathogenic microorganisms from drinking water is the first and foremost requirement in terms of maintaining the quality of water as well as reducing the water- borne diseases. The presence of coliform in water acts as an indicator of the presence of others pathogens.  

Methods: Present study attempted to focus on the existence of coliform and fecal coliform in drinking water along with their drug resistant pattern through conventional culture methods and Kirby-Bauer method (disk diffusion).   

Results: A total of 30 samples (15 were boiled and 15 were filter) were collected and processed for microbiological action. Significant numbers of samples (both filter and boiled water) were found to be contaminated with coliform bacteria especially E. coli and Klebsiella spp. within the range of 102 to 104 cfu/ml. In addition, few samples exhibited fecal contamination. A total of 15 available drugs were used against the identified E. coli and Klebsiella spp.  Most of the identified bacteria were found to be sensitive against commonly used antibiotics. Very few strains of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in both filter and boiled water were found to be resistant to more than one antibiotic. Only Klebsiella spp. from boiled water showed 100% sensitivity against all the drugs. 

Conclusions: The presence of drug resistant coliform and fecal coliform in drinking water is a clear indication of poor water quality which might be a threat for consumer’s health, especially for the children.


Keywords


Drinking water, Coliform, Fecal coliform, Drug resistance

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acharjee M, Rahman F, Jahan F, Noor R. Bacterial proliferation in municipal water supplied in mirpur locality of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Clean–Soil, Air, Water. 2014;42(4):434-41.

Islam T, Acharjee M, Tabassum N, Acharjee MR. Bacterial Propagation in Municipal Water and Deep Tube-well Water in Kashipur Locality of Narayanganj City, Banglades. J Water Environm Tech. 2020;18(5):327-37.

Acharjee M, Rahman F, Beauty SA, Feroz F, Rahman MM, Noor R. Microbiological study on supply water and treated water in Dhaka city. Stamfor J Microbiol. 2011;1(1):42-5.

Munshi SK, Rahman MM, Noor R. Detection of virulence potential of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli isolated from surface water of rivers surrounding dhaka city. J Bangladesh Acad Sci. 2012;36(1):109-21.

Rompré A, Servais P, Baudart J, De-Roubin MR, Laurent P. Detection and enumeration of coliforms in drinking water: current methods and emerging approaches. J Microbiol Methods. 2002;49(1):31-54.

Razzak SBA, Sweety MA, Lubna MA, Akter T, Ahmmed J, Hossaini F, Uddin SHM, Roy TS, Acharjee M. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of microbial contamination in some bottled water and tap water along with their drug resistant pattern. International Food Research Journal. 2021.

Tabassum N, Akter M, Acharjee M. Study on Microbiological Quality Analysis of Tap-Water and the Effects of Halo-tab Plus Tablet on Water Born Microorganisms. IOSR J Biote Bioch. 2019;5(3):6-10.

Parveen S, hmed MSU, Tania N. Microbial contamination of ater in around Dhaka city’. Bang J Sci Industr Res. 2008;43(2):273-6.

DiPaola TS. Biological and Chemical Renovation of Wastewater with a Soil Infiltrator Low-Pressure Distribution System (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Tech).

McLellan SL. Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from urban rivers and beach water. Appl Environmen Microbiol. 2004;70(8):4658-65.

Ahmed W, Neller R, Katouli M. Host species-specific metabolic fingerprint database for enterococci and Escherichia coli and its application to identify sources of fecal contamination in surface waters. App Environmen Microbiol. 2005;71(8):4461-8.

McFeters GA, Kippin JS, LeChevallier MW. Injured coliforms in drinking water. App Environmen Microbiol. 1986;51(1):1-5.

Clark RM, Geldreich EE, Fox KR, Rice EW, Johnsonn CH, Goodrich JA, et al. Tracking a Salmonella serovar typhimurium outbreak in Gideon, Missouri: role of contaminant propagation modelling. aqua-london then oxford. J Int Water Supp Assoc. 1996;45:171-83.

American Public Health Association. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Washington DC: 1998.

LeChevallier MW. Coliform regrowth in drinking water: a review. J Am Water Works Assoc. 1990;82(11):74-86.

Payment P, Richardson L, Siemiatycki J, Dewar R, Edwardes M, Franco E. A randomized trial to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal disease due to consumption of drinking water meeting current microbiological standards. Am J Pub Heal. 1991;81(6):703-8.

Moore AC, Herwaldt BL, Craun GF, Calderon RL, Highsmith AK, Juranek DD. Waterborne disease in the United States, 1991 and 1992. J Am Water Works Assoc. 1994;86(2):87-97.

Mac Kenzie WR, Hoxie NJ, Proctor ME, Gradus MS, Blair KA, Peterson DE, et al. A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of Cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(3):161-7.

Gofti L, Zmirou D, Hartemann P, Potelon JL. Waterborne microbiological risk assessment: a state of the art and perspectives. Revue d'epidemiologie et de Sante Publique. 1999;47(1):61-73.

Colwell RR. Bacterial death revisited. InNonculturable microorganisms in the environment. Springer, Boston, MA. 2000;325-42

Oliver JD. Recent findings on the viable but nonculturable state in pathogenic bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2010;34(4):415-25.

Cappuccino, J.G. and Sherman, N. (1996). Microbiology- A Laboratory Manual. The Benjamin/ Cummings publishing Co., Inc., Menlo Park, California.

Alfrad EB. Bensons Microbiological Applications. Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 2007.

Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherris JC, Tierh M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. Ame J Clin Patholog. 996;45(4):493-6.

Ferraro MJ, Craig WA, Dudley MN. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. NCCLS, Pennsylvania, USA. 2001

26. Mead, A.M., Helm, G., Callan, P. and Atlas, R. M. (1999). ‘A prospective study of drinking water quality and gastrointestinal diseases’. New Eng.J. Med, Vol. 245, No. 9, pp. 224-248.

Bennett PM. Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Brit J Pharmacol. 2008;153(S1):S347-57.

Canton R. Antibiotic resistance genes from the environment: a perspective through newly identified antibiotic resistance mechanisms in the clinical setting. Clinic Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:20-5.

Kaufmann BB, Hung DT. The fast track to multidrug resistance. Molecul cell. 2010;37(3):297-8.