DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20211041

Isolated upper vaginal wall laceration in an underage: a need to re-examine child sexual abuse in South-South Nigeria.

Peter Chibuzor Oriji, Ebiye S. Tekenah, Olakunle I. Makinde, Tonebimonyo J. Wagio, Nnamdi C. Nwanze, Barbara Eneni

Abstract


Child sexual abuse includes any sexual act between a minor and an adult, or between two minors, when one exerts power over the other. It involves forcing, coercing or persuading a child to engage in any type of sexual act. It also involves non-contact acts such as exhibitionism, exposure to pornography, voyeurism, and communicating in a sexual manner by phone or internet. An eight-year-old girl was rushed to the gynaecological emergency unit of the Federal medical centre, Yenagoa with complaints of a three-hour history of sudden onset vaginal bleeding following a fall astride in their house. There was no injury to the vulva and the child and her relatives denied any form of sexual abuse by anyone within or outside their home. She had examination under anaesthesia in theatre and a 3 cm laceration was identified at the proximal one-third of the left lateral wall of the vagina, covered with a blood clot; not bleeding actively. Repair was done and she was subsequently discharged home on the fourth post-operative day after counselling of mother and child. Child sexual abuse is common in our environment. Education and bonding with children, education of the public via outreaches, social media campaigns and other means possible, and improvement in the socio-economic situation of people will help reduce the incidence of child sexual abuse and encourage reporting and early disclosure where they occur.


Keywords


Child sexual abuse, Vaginal laceration, Vaginal bleeding

Full Text:

PDF

References


Fletcher H, Bambury I, Williams M. Post-coital posterior fornix perforation with peritonitis and hemoperitoneum. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2013;4(2):153-5.

Jeng CJ, Wang LR. Vaginal laceration and haemorrhagic shock during consensual sexual intercourse. J Sex Marital Ther. 2007;33(3):249-53.

Sloin MM, Karimian M, Ilbeigi P. Nonobstetric lacerations of the vagina. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2006;106(5):271-3.

Townsend C. Rheingold AA. Estimating a child sexual abuse prevalence rate for practitioners: a review of child sexual abuse prevalence studies, 2013. Available from: https://www.d2l.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/PREVALENCE-RATE-WHITE-PAPER-D2L.pdf. Accessed February 7, 2021.

Townsend C. Prevalence and consequences of child sexual abuse compared with other childhood experiences, 2013. Available from: https://www.d2l.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/MOST-SIGNIFICANT-SEVERE-LONGTERM-PAPER-D2L.pdf. Accessed February 7, 2021.

London K. Bruck M, Ceci S, Shuman D. Disclosure of child sexual abuse: What does the research tell us about the ways that children tell? Psychol Public Policy Law. 2003;11(1):194-226.

Ullman SE. Relationship to perpetrator, disclosure, social reactions, and PTSD symptoms in child sexual abuse survivors. J Child Sexual Abuse. 2007;16(1):19-36.

Broman-Fulks JJ, Ruggiero KJ, Hanson RF, Smith DW, Resnick HS, Kilpatrick DG et al. Sexual assault disclosure in relation to adolescent mental health: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents. J Clin Child Adoles Psychol. 2007;36:260-6.

Smith DW, Letourneau EJ, Saunders BE, Kilpatrick DG, Resnick HS, Best CL. Delay in disclosure of childhood rape: Results from a national survey. Child Abuse Neglect. 2000;24:273-87.

Finkelhor D, Ormrod R. Characteristics of crimes against juveniles. Washington DC, USA: US Government Printing Office, 2012.

Whealin J. Child Sexual Abuse. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 2007. Available from: https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/treat/type/sexual_abuse_child.asp. Accessed February 7, 2021.

David N, Ezechi O, Wapmuk A, Gbajabiamila T, Ohihoin A, Herbertson E et al. Child sexual abuse and disclosure in South Western Nigeria: a community-based study. Afr Health Sci. 2018;18(2):199-208.

Alaggia R, Collin-V├ęzina D, Lateef R. Facilitators and Barriers to Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Disclosures: A Research Update (2000-2016). Trauma Violence Abuse. 2019;20(2):260-83.

Whitaker DJ, Le B, Hanson K, Baker CK, McMahon PM, Ryan G et al. Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: Meta-analysis. Child Abuse Neglect. 2008;32:529-48.

Oriji PC, Omietimi JE, Allagoa D, Sominyai IRC, Adeniran A, Ikiba P et al. Coital laceration in shock: a case report. Yen Med J. 2019;1(1):49-51.