Vitamin D deficiency among the patients attending B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences: a cross sectional study
Keywords:Prevalence, Vitamin D, Vitamin D deficiency
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has become a public health problem worldwide regardless to geography. Vitamin D deficiency leads to osteoporosis and also associated with metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes and autoimmune disorders. Early detection of vitamin D level in blood followed by supplementation can prevent various chronic diseases. There are limited studies of vitamin D deficiency from eastern Nepal therefore we planned to assess the prevalence of vitamin D in different age groups and gender among patients visiting at BPKIHS.
Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done among the patients attending Immunoassay laboratory of the BPKIHS. Based on purposive sampling technique, data of first visit of patients were taken who came for investigation of vitamin D from January to March, 2019. Serum 25 (OH) vitamin D levels were measured by CLIA method using Maglumi 2000 (Snibe Co. Ltd, Shenzhen, China).
Results: A total of 2399 (73.81%) female and 851 (26.19%) males were enrolled in the study among which 66 (2.03%), 133 (4.09%) and 3051 (93.88%) were children, adolescent and adult respectively. This study revealed 61.2%, 27.6% and 11.2% patients having deficient, insufficient and sufficient level of serum vitamin D respectively. Significantly, highest percentages of adolescents were found vitamin D deficient compared to adults and children. Adolescents have shown significantly low median levels of vitamin D (p<0.001).
Conclusions: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is higher in patients visiting BPKIHS. Comparatively higher percentage of vitamin D deficiency and low vitamin D levels are reported among adolescents compared to children and adult.
Regmi S, Regmi AP, Adhikari S, Shakya D. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency among children, adolescents. J Chitwan Med Coll. 2017;7(19):11-5.
Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:266-81.
Ritu G, Gupta A. Vitamin D deficiency in India: prevalence, causalities and interventions. Nutrients. 2014; 6:729-75.
Avagyan D, Neupane SP, Gundersen TE, Madar AA. Vitamin D status in pre-school children in rural Nepal. Public Health Nutr. 2015;19(3):470-6.
Rai CK, Shrestha B, Sapkota J, Das JK. Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among adult patients in a tertiary care hospital. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2019; 57(218):226-8.
Sarma D, Saikia UK, Baro A. Vitamin D status of school children in and around Guwahati. Indian J Endocrinol Metabol. 2019;23(1):81-5.
Shafi A, Chowdhury SK, Hossain IA , Yasmin R, Haque MM, Faruquee MH, et al. Status of serum vitamin D among Bangladeshi children: urban and rural settings. Acta Sci Paediatr. 2019;2(8):3-7.
Bhatta MP, Pandey BR, Gurung KM, Nakarmi R, Gurung K, Gurung LB, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among adult population of Western Region of Nepal. Int J Med Biomed Sci. 2016;1(2): 7-12
Angurana SK, Angurana RS, Mahajan G, Kumar N, Mahajan V. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in apparently healthy children in north India. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014;27(11-12):1151-6.
Poudel N, Dhakal SS, Sukhupayo R, Karki DB. Vitamin D deficiency among patients visiting a tertiary care hospital: a descriptive cross-sectional study. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2020;58(231):839-42.
Pal CP, Kumar H, Kumar D, Mittal V, Deshwar G, Altaf D, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in orthopedic patients: A single centre study. J Clin Orthopaed. 2016;7(2):S2143-6.
Al Zarooni ABR, Al Marzouqi FI, Al Darmaki SH, Margrietha PEA, Nagelkerke N. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated comorbidities among Abu Dhabi Emirates population. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12:503-6.