Calculating the MOND constant and addressing flat galactic orbital star rotation velocity curves

William S. Oakley


A particle based explanation for the MOND constant, ao, is proposed. For stars orbiting in the outer region of galaxies Newton’s inverse square law fails at the same classical angular acceleration v2/R, (= ao), regardless of the mass of the galaxy or star, the star orbital velocity v, or the orbit radius R. Gravitational orbital dynamics, where orbital matter propagates un-accelerated in curved space-time as described by General Relativity, applies equally to systems of vastly different masses, i.e. at cosmological and elementary particle scales, with gravity simply an observer domain manifestation of the force localizing electromagnetic energy to form particles. Comparison of astronomical data and particle concepts, with scale adjustments, enables an expression for ao to be derived and a numerical value obtained within the uncertainty bounds of empirical data. Newton’s law fails and stellar orbital velocities become independent of the orbit radius at the same gravitational field strength as at the proton radius. A quantum loop based cause of orbital velocity curve flattening is proposed.


MOND constant, Galactic rotation curves, Curved space-time, Gravitational field strength, Newton’s law

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