Impact of exposure to mass media on utilization modern contraceptive among adolescent married women in Ethiopia: evidence from Ethiopia demographic health survey 2016


  • Kedir Abdu Yesuf Department of Health informatics, Dessie Health Science College, Dessie, Amhara, Ethiopia
  • Atrsaw Dessie Liyew Department of midwives, Dessie Health Science College, Dessie, Amhara, Ethiopia
  • Amare Kassie Bezabih Department of Health informatics, Dessie Health Science College, Dessie, Amhara, Ethiopia



Contraceptive, Ethiopia, Recursive biprobit probit, Adolescent married women


Background: More than one billion of world population was adolescent age group. Adolescents are high risk of unwanted pregnancy related to pregnancy is preventable. This complication can be prevented by use of family planning method. One of the challenges to use family planning was lack of information about contraceptive. This study was investigated mass media impact on use of modern contraceptive among adolescent in Ethiopia, 2016 E. C.

Methods: This study conducted based on EDHS (Ethiopia demographic health survey) 2016 data which was cross-sectional study design. Sample size for this study was 588 adolescent married women that completed interview in EDHS 2016. Mass media impact on modern contraceptive use were analyzed using propensity score matching. Recursive biprobit probit model was used to determine factor associated with mass media exposure on modern contraceptive utilization.

Results: In Ethiopia about 31.8% of adolescent married women currently used modern contraceptive. Expose to family planning message had 16.8%, 13.2%, 17% and 21.9% point higher modern contraceptive use than unexposed to mass media message. In this study significant factor affected modern contraceptive use included residence, wealth index, radio message, exposed to TV message, magazine message and exposure to mass media message family planning.

Conclusions: This study shows magnitude of contraceptive utilization was low and it might be due to lack of information about family planning. Therefore, policy maker and concerned body should consider dissemination family of planning information by mass media.


Metrics Loading ...


WHO U, Mathers C. Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030). Organization. 2016.

Dick-Read G. Childbirth without fear: the principles and practice of natural childbirth. 2nd ed. USA: Yogawords; 2013.

Grindlay K, Dako-Gyeke P, Ngo TD, Eva G, Gobah L, Reiger ST, et al. Contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy among young women and men in Accra, Ghana. PloS One. 2018;13(8):0201663.

Organization WH. Family planning evidence brief: reducing early and unintended pregnancies among adolescents. World Health Organization; 2017.

Hubacher D, Trussell J. A definition of modern contraceptive methods. Contraception. 2015;92(5):420-1.

Chandra-Mouli V, McCarraher DR, Phillips SJ, Williamson NE, Hainsworth G. Contraception for adolescents in low and middle income countries: needs, barriers, and access. Reproduct Health. 2014;11(1):1.

Organization WH. Adolescent pregnancy: adolescence is a time of opportunity during which a range of actions can be taken to set the stage for healthy adulthood: factsheet. World Health Organization; 2014.

Grace AO, Sunday EO. Mass media as major instrument of family planning utilisation in Nigeria. Int Conf Mod Res Soc Sci. 2019

Safieh J, Schuster T, McKinnon B, Booth A, Bergevin Y. Reported evidence on the effectiveness of mass media interventions in increasing knowledge and use of family planning in low and middle-income countries: a systematic mixed methods review. J Glob Health. 2019;9(2):020420.

Olagunju OS, Obasanjo BA, Temitope EP, Saliu O, Taiwo I, Musa Z, et al. Does family planning messages exposure in the preceding 12 months period predict the current use of a modern family planning method among women of reproductive age in Nigeria? Am J Publ Health. 2020;8(3):100-4.

Konkor I, Sano Y, Antabe R, Kansanga M, Luginaah I. Exposure to mass media family planning messages among post-delivery women in Nigeria: testing the structural influence model of health communication. Europe J Contracept Reproduct Health Care. 2019;24(1):18-23.

Masood MS, Alsonini NA. Knowledge and attitude about reproductive health and family planning among young adults in Yemen. Int J Populat Res. 2017.

Jacobs J, Marino M, Edelman A, Jensen J, Darney B. Mass media exposure and modern contraceptive use among married West African adolescents. Europe J Contracept Reproduct Health Care. 2017;22(6):439-49.

Oluwasanu MM, John-Akinola YO, Desmennu AT, Oladunni O, Adebowale AS. Access to Information on family planning and use of modern contraceptives among married Igbo women in Southeast, Nigeria. Int Quarter Commun Health Educ. 2019;39(4):233-43.

Grant C, Bhardwaj M. Family Planning Communications. Instit Develop Stud. 2016.

Ajaero CK, Odimegwu C, Ajaero ID, Nwachukwu CA. Access to mass media messages, and use of family planning in Nigeria: a spatio-demographic analysis from the 2013 DHS. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):427.

Adekoya HO, Akoja M, Ekeh CM, Anaeto N. Awareness, knowledge and comprehension of media messages on family planning as predictors of practice among civil servants in Lagos State, Nigeria. Glob J Health Sci. 2020;12(1).

Chima V, Alawode OA. Modern contraceptive use among female adolescents in rural Nigeria: Does exposure to family planning messages matter? A cross-sectional study. Gates Open Res. 2019;3:627.

CSA. Ethiopia demographic and health survey 2016. Key Indicators Report. October 2016

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Health. Health Sector Development Programme IV 2010/11 - 2014/15 October 2010.

FMOH. HSTP-I annual performance report (ARM_2016). 2015/2016.

Morgan CJ. Reducing bias using propensity score matching. J Nucl Cardiol. 2018;25(2):404-6.

Jupiter DC. Propensity score matching: retrospective randomization? J Foot Ankle Surg. 2017;56(2):417-20.

Marra G, Radice R, Filippou P. Regression spline bivariate probit models: a practical approach to testing for exogeneity. Communicat Statistic Simulat Computat. 2017;46(3):2283-98.

Abadie A, Imbens GW. Matching on the estimated propensity score. Econometrica. 2016;84(2):781-807.

Benedetto U, Head SJ, Angelini GD, Blackstone EH. Statistical primer: propensity score matching and its alternatives. Europe J Cardio Thoracic Surg. 2018;53(6):1112-7.

Zhang Z, Kim HJ, Lonjon G, Zhu Y. Balance diagnostics after propensity score matching. Ann Translation Med. 2019;7(1).

Hirano K, Imbens GW, Ridder G. Efficient estimation of average treatment effects using the estimated propensity score. Econometrica. 2003;71(4):1161-89.

Austin PC, Jembere N, Chiu M. Propensity score matching and complex surveys. Statistic Method Med Res. 2018;27(4):1240-57.

Vable AM, Kiang MV, Glymour MM, Rigdon J, Drabo EF, Basu S. Performance of matching methods as compared with unmatched ordinary least squares regression under constant effects. Am J Epidemiol. 2019;188(7):1345-54.

Filippini M, Greene WH, Kumar N, Martinez-Cruz AL. A note on the different interpretation of the correlation parameters in the bivariate probit and the recursive bivariate probit. Econom Letter. 2018;167:104-7.

Li C, Poskitt DS, Zhao X. The bivariate probit model, maximum likelihood estimation, pseudo true parameters and partial identification. J Economet. 2019;209(1):94-113.

Schwiebert J. A bivariate fractional probit model. Work paper series economics. Leuphana Universität Lüneburg. 2018.

Asresie MB, Fekadu GA, Dagnew GW. Contraceptive use among women with no fertility intention in Ethiopia. Plos One. 2020;15(6):0234474.

Babalola S, Figueroa ME, Krenn S. Association of mass media communication with contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys. J Health Communicat. 2017;22(11):885-95.

Odewale BJ, Oladosun M, Amoo EO. Multiple exposure to information about family planning and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria. Int Conf Afr Develop Issue. 2016.

Mutumba M, Wekesa E, Stephenson R. Community influences on modern contraceptive use among young women in low and middle-income countries: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis. BMC Pub Health. 2018;18(1):430.

Remez L, Woog V, Mhloyi M. Sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents in Zimbabwe. Issue Brief (Alan Guttmacher Instit). 2014(3):1-8.

Habibov N, Zainiddinov H. Effect of TV and radio family planning messages on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post‐Soviet Central Asia. Int J Health Planning Manage. 2017;32(1):17-38.

Mwejuma IS, Mosha P, Msuya S. Effects of multimedia family planning promotion on women contraceptive use in Arumeru district. Int J Innovat Scientif Res. 2017.






Original Research Articles